LOREX: Participants and Projects
|Dr. Adina Paytan
Research Professor, Institute of Marine Sciences
University of California, Santa Cruz
|Dr. Adrienne J. Sponberg
ASLO Director of Communications and Science
|Dr. Michael Pace
|Dr. Linda Duguay
LOREX and Science Communication interns
Eilea Knotts - Spring 2020 LOREX and ASLO Science Communication Intern
Eilea is a marine phytoplankton ecologist who completed her Ph.D. at the University of South Carolina. She studied carbon acquisition strategies as a mechanism for microalgal community structuring processes. Eilea also enhanced her studies by participating as a member of the first Limnology and Oceanography Research Exchange (LOREX) cohort.
During her graduate studies, Eilea gained experience in communication across multiple platforms. She was the social media coordinator for the Southeastern Estuarine Research Society, the Biological Sciences Department at the University of SC, and her department’s graduate association. These opportunities provided insight into what was necessary to engage the public as well as the hitches commonly experienced. During the internship, Eilea plans to gain insights into the management of science organizations by assisting with the LOREX program as well as develop pathways that engage the scientific community to utilize communication tools. She also hopes to provide higher awareness on scientific issues and incentive to participate in the discussion. You can contact her at Knotts@aslo.org
Brittany Schieler – Summer 2019 LOREX and ASLO Science Communication Intern
Brittany is a marine microbiologist and phytoplankton ecologist who recently graduated with a Ph.D. in oceanography from Rutgers University. Her research focused on an important species of phytoplankton called Emiliania huxleyi that produces beautiful and intricate shells of calcium carbonate (the same stuff coral reefs are made of!). Brittany studied how the production of free radicals impacts the susceptibility of E. huxleyi to infection by viruses.
During her Ph.D., Brittany participated in several field campaigns that took her all over the world and involved collaborators from various international institutions. As an ASLO Science Communication Intern, Brittany plans to foster her interests in collaboration by assisting with ASLO’s inaugural Limnology and Oceanography Research Exchange (LOREX) program. During the internship, Brittany also hopes to gain useful insights into the management of science non-profits as well as develop tools to engage the public and policy-makers on the importance of the hidden microbial world to the health of our oceans. If you need any support, please feel free to contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Maha Cziesielski – Fall 2019 LOREX and ASLO Science Communication Intern
Maha Cziesielski is a PhD student at the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology in Saudi Arabia, where she studies the impacts of climate change on coral’s molecular machinery. Her thesis focuses on multiple layers of cell functions, namely transcriptomics, proteomics and epigenomics, to understand coral-algae symbiosis and factors that determine thermotolerance. Besides conducting research she is also passionate about science communication, outreach and education. Since starting to write in 2017, she has contributed to numerous blogs and is currently one of the editors in chief at Reefbites. Maha will be serving as a Science Communication Fellow for the Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography in Washington D.C. starting in September 2019.
Umeå University, Sweden
Climate Impacts Research Centre
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Amanda is a third-year PhD student in the Program in Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation Biology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Her previous research has examined questions around invasive species, climate change, ecotoxicology, and currently she is using environmental DNA (eDNA) as a tool for conservation. Currently, her PhD research focuses on basic methodological questions around in situ detection of eDNA, like the influence of stream flow on detection probability. In addition, she is using eDNA to detect and map the distribution of an imperiled salamander, which will hopefully be useful for directing future conservation actions. For Amanda’s LOREX project, she will be working with Dr. Jonatan Klaminder at Umeå University, to combine paleo-ecotoxicology techniques with novel DNA technology (ancient DNA (aDNA) and eDNA) to assess the effects of multiple stressors (e.g. temperature, mercury (Hg) concentrations) over time in a Swedish lake. By integrating aDNA and eDNA with paleo-ecotoxicology techniques, the work will provide a novel assessment of the effects of environmental change and contaminants on aquatic communities through time. She is very excited to work with Dr. Klaminder’s lab to learn new techniques, to exchange knowledge on Hg and eDNA methodology, and to learn as much as she can from other brilliant scientists. In addition, she looks forward to making new connections with other aquatic scientists, to learn how to build lasting international collaborations, and most importantly to have fun conducting her research!
Colorado State University
Jemma is a second year PhD student at Colorado State University in Dr. Ed Hall’s lab. This summer she will be traveling to Sweden to work with Dr. David Seekell at Umeå University. One aspect of limnology she is particularly interested in is the relationship between climate change and stratification and how that relationship plays out in communities dependent on local lakes. To examine the concept of stratification as a key component of lakes as natural resources, she and Dr. Seekell have proposed a synthesis of between-region and between-lake factors of two study locations, one tropical and one arctic. Though exceptionally different systems, Lake Yojoa, Honduras and the Abisko region of Sweden are both impacted by climate change in terms of warming surface waters and changes in stratification. By critically analyzing these two dissimilar systems they aim to develop a framework for asking questions aimed at the broader social and economic impacts. It is the goal of this research to not only quantitatively examine the relationship between physical-chemical structure of the water column and diminishing fisheries but also to explore the direct and indirect effects of stratification regimes on local communities. Some of the impacts they will explore through this research include job provisioning in rural communities, the equity of reparations to the Sami people under changing fisheries conditions and the reassessment of protected habitat. Jemma is excited for the upcoming challenges and opportunities of international collaboration in an unfamiliar ecosystem. She hopes to, through learning about issues related to climate change in the Artic, come away from this experience with the ability to more critically view her work in the tropics.
University of New Hampshire
Tamara is a graduate student in the Natural Resources and Earth System Sciences Ph.D. program at the University of New Hampshire. Her research interests include using bioinformatic techniques to understand the impact of warming on microbial mediation of carbon emissions from Arctic lakes. Additionally, she studies how indigenous communities access weather and climate data to better understand how to make results from climate research more accessible and applicable to individuals and communities. Using a combination of survey data and storytelling, Tamara works with Sami communities and indigenous Australians to record environmental change observed by the traditional owners of the land. Through this work, she hopes to promote the collaborative development of conservation policy by both scientists and indigenous communities. Previously, Tamara has worked with non-profits and local governments in the Indian Himalaya to translate the results of her research into local environmental policy. Tamara has been a Fulbright-Nehru fellow, a NASA New Hampshire Space Grant fellow, and a National Center for Atmospheric Research fellow and completed her B.S. in biochemistry and English from the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities.
University of California, Davis
Christine's early work on Coast Range Newts (Taricha torosa) engendered an interest and appreciation for life-history theory and local adaptations to environmental heterogeneity. Over time, and notably through projects at the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory (RMBL), she became increasingly focused on high alpine freshwater ecosystems and their potential as models for testing deeper ecological questions. For her MS, Christine investigated the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of aquatic insects in lentic and lotic ecosystems in the northern Sierra Nevada in California, USA. Ultimately, Christine endeavored to advance fisheries conservation and management issues in California’s Sierra Nevada, but also other mountain lake rich portions of the globe.
Christine is currently exploring the abundance, distribution, and food web ecology of California alpine lake ecosystems in the Sierra Nevada. While a global-scale analysis has not been part of her work to date, Christine has growing interests in understanding landscape limnology patterns occurring across scales. During her LOREX exchange, Christine will work closely with David Seekell and Cristian Gudasz from Umeå University in Sweden to evaluate spatial variance in global lake counts. The analysis will also yield valuable information for use in developing similar smaller-scale analyses for California. Finally, Christine aims to make the data products, code, and provenance from her LOREX work completely open such that future researchers may benefit from efforts developed as part of this exchange.
Christine’s other interests include scientific communication, biological illustration, and she is passionate about promoting diversity, inclusivity, and equity in STEM. Her career goal is to advance the fields of limnology, freshwater ecology, and the physical sciences through multifaceted team science collaboration. Locally, Christine aims to understand the understudied California Sierra Nevada lakes and streams and support freshwater ecosystem diversity.
University of Alabama
Phoenix is a central Wisconsin native, where his love for fishing turned into a passion for better understanding aquatic ecosystems. This motivated Phoenix to attain a B.S. in Biology with an emphasis in Aquatic Science at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse (UWL). During his time at UWL Phoenix was involved in numerous projects focused on stream systems. He investigated ecosystem-level effects of methylmercury in at-risk rivers, determined the susceptibility of local streams to future climate change using air-water temperature relationships, and measured the temporal variability of whole-stream ecosystem metabolism in a nearby stream. Phoenix is now a PhD student in the Biological Sciences department at the University of Alabama working with Dr. Jon Benstead to research the impacts of warming on forested stream macro invertebrate communities and ecosystem processes they provide. Their research group is artificially warming a forested stream by ~4°C and Pheonix’s role is determining how that impacts invertebrate secondary production, community assemblage, and material flow within the stream. Aquatic macro invertebrates play a crucial role in stream ecosystems, yet little work has investigated their response to future climate change. With the LOREX program, Pheonix will be working with Dr. Ryan Sponseller at Umeå University in Sweden and expanding his dissertation to include macro invertebrate communities in arctic streams. He and his group will be using the vegetation gradient within the Miellajokka catchment of northern Sweden to model the impacts of future climate change. The natural gradient in temperature, light, and productivity represents the expected future climate induced changes. This will be used to characterize patterns in macro invertebrate composition and growth rate of key taxa amongst streams in this catchment, modeling how future climate change will impact these vulnerable arctic ecosystems. Phoenix is eager to start on this project and excited to meet/collaborate with international colleagues!
Dalhousie University, Canada
The Department of Oceanography
University of Massachusetts Boston
Kelly is a PhD student in the Marine Science and Technology program at the University of Massachusetts – Boston. Her thesis focuses on using ocean color remote sensing sensors for water quality monitoring. For her proposed research project, Kelly will be working with Dr. Paul Hill at Dalhousie University to quantify river discharge from remote sensing platforms. Fluctuating river discharges are associated with climate change and other anthropogenic effects. Systematic measurements of river discharge are necessary for monitoring and managing river systems but gathering such in situ data at fine spatio-temporal scales can be logistically challenging and costly. Publicly available ocean color remote sensing imagery from high spatial resolution satellites can be used to monitor river systems. Thus, the goal of the proposed project is to evaluate remotely sensed proxies for river discharge using the Landsat 8 and Sentinel 2 satellites. The project objectives include: 1) compiling in situ and satellite datasets over the Connecticut River Estuary, 2) comparing Landsat 8 and Sentinel 2 reflectance in the red wavelengths with river discharge, and 3) comparing Landsat 8 and Sentinel 2 river widths to river discharge. The results from this work will help determine the applicability of remotely sensed proxies for river discharge estimation, and it will lay the groundwork for applying these proxies to other river systems.
Catherine (Catrina) Nowakowski
University of Rhode Island
Catrina is a PhD student using stable isotopes as tracers to study how our warming climate changes marine ecosystems through bottom up processes. She is a third-year student studying Biological Oceanography at the University of Rhode Island’s Graduate School of Oceanography with Dr. Kelton McMahon and will be working with Dr. Owen Sherwood next summer at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Canada. Her thesis aims to provide historical context changes in food web regimes, biogeochemical cycling, and export production in the Gulf of Maine as a function of climate using cutting-edge compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) methods.
During her LOREX project at Dalhousie University, Catrina will apply CSIA methods to recently collected deep-sea corals (2017-2020) from the Gulf of Maine to reconstruct long term (fifty year), high resolution (annual) records of changes in export production dynamics since the 1970s. This will entail generating a timeseries of δ15N-based CSIA metrics representing source nitrogen, trophic transfer, and microbial reworking of sinking organic matter recorded in the proteinaceous skeletons of Primnoa resedaeformis corals within the context of the broader Gulf of Maine trophic biology and nitrogen cycling. While in the program, her goals are to expand on analytical skills in dating coral growth rings and analyzing samples for amino acid-specific N isotopes; as well as to develop new collaborations with colleagues interested in paleoceanography. Her research explores the dynamics of large-scale ocean systems that are not constrained by international boarders, and she is excited to work with the ASLO LOREX program to build the necessary bridges across international borders to tackle these global-scale questions.
University of Maine
Rachel obtained her BS in Freshwater and Marine Biology from the University of Texas at Austin and her MS in Biology from the University of West Florida. Rachel’s master’s thesis examined the role of nitrogen fixation in subtropical seagrass bed sediments. She is currently working on her PhD in Oceanography at the University of Maine. Her dissertation is focused on understanding how the organic carbon to nitrate ratio, the primary controlling factor on competition between nitrate reduction processes (denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation—anammox—, and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium—DNRA), affects the dominance of nitrate reduction process in the anaerobic layer of marine sediment. She conducts experiments that have sediment thin discs placed into a flow-through reactor, which acts as a chemostat, to address this problem. Rachel’s dissertation also looks at the microbial assemblages in the anaerobic, nitrate-reducing sediment layer. Additionally, she is studying nitrogen cycling dynamics in Maine’s coastal sediments in areas that experience anthropogenic impacts and unimpacted areas.
During the LOREX program, Rachel will be using data from her thin disc experiments, which aim to determine whether there are distinct tipping points along a range of organic carbon to nitrate ratios at which dominance between the three nitrate reducing processes switches as suggested by a modeling study by Algar and Vallino (2014). At Dalhousie University, she will be working with Dr. Chris Algar to develop and build inverse models to interpret these results. The model will be fit to the measured inorganic nitrogen species using denitrification and DNRA rates as parameters. This modeling exercise will allow her to determine if the energy yield and thermodynamic favorability of a reaction is or is not more important than biology and organism specific properties in determining the partitioning between nitrate reduction processes. In addition to accomplishing these research-specific goals, Rachel hopes to expand her professional network outside of the United States and establish relationships with other researchers, who she could potentially collaborate with in the future.
Interuniversity Group in Limnology (GRIL)
Montréal, Québec, Canada
Portland State University
Lara is a PhD student at Portland State University in her second year, studying the abiotic factors, such as phosphorus levels, and biotic factors, such as non-native fish, influencing cyanobacteria blooms in high-elevation lakes. She has over seven years of research experience in aquatic systems from studying pH regulation mechanisms in leopard sharks to nutrient cycling in subtropical wetlands. Lara completed her BS in Ecology, Behavior and Evolution at University of California, San Diego and Masters in Natural Resources at Humboldt State University. Over time in her research work, Lara has become increasingly fascinated by how the environment shapes community structure and function, ultimately influencing ecosystem processes like primary productivity. Through the LOREX program, she will work with Dr. Jesse Shapiro’s lab on high throughput sequencing to identify cyanobacteria at the strain level, which is crucial as toxin-production and bloom formation varies within a genus, in mountain lakes across elevational (as a proxy for temperature) and phosphorus gradients. Based upon previous studies, she expects bloom-forming and toxic strains to be more prevalent at the relatively higher temperatures and phosphorus concentrations. This collaborative project fits within a larger international study led by Dr. Shapiro, DNA sequencing cyanobacteria from many North American lakes. Lara seeks to understand how to effectively carry out a genomics project from planning to sequencing data processing. In addition, she hopes to network with the larger limnology community at GRIL -University of Montreal and learn about other unique research like the Large Experimental Array of Ponds. Ultimately, Lara is excited to lead a collaborative study, building relationships to explore new avenues of study with a combined knowledge base.
Carrie Ann Sharitt
Carrie Ann is a second-year graduate student at Miami University (Ohio). Growing up, she spent lots of time outdoors exploring local beaches and swamps as well as camping with her family. In undergrad, Carrie Ann majored in Biology and Secondary Education which allowed her to pursue ecology interests and also share her passions with others. Afterwards, she spent four years teaching middle and high school science in Atlanta, GA. In her free time, Carrie Ann enjoys working puzzles, reading, and a variety of crafts including photography and coloring. She also loves traveling and is currently planning a solo trip to Tanzania to visit Gombe National Park.
In terms of research, Carrie Ann is broadly interested in the role consumers play in nutrient cycling as they release nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus largely through excretion and egestion. Factors such temperature and population biomass are known to impact the overall amount of nutrients released from aquatic consumers. However, little is known about how parasites impact nutrient excretion from aquatic consumers; yet, parasites will increase in abundance and intensity under many climate change models. Through the LOREX program, Carrie Ann aims to better understand the synergistic influence of climate warming and parasite burden on animal excretion. Working with GRIL researchers at Station de Biologie des Laurentides, pumpkinseed fish will be exposed to temperatures increases as well as various trematode infection burdens. After allowing the fish to acclimate for several weeks, nutrient excretion will be measured across treatments. A subsample of fish will also be used to understand how warming temperatures and parasites alter stoichiometry of fish body tissues. It is anticipated that nutrient excretion will increase with elevated parasite burden and higher temperatures.
Southern Cross University, Australia
University of Southern Mississippi
Amy is a third year PhD student at the University of Southern Mississippi studying the impacts of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) on the Mississippi Sound. SGD is the combined flow of freshwater from aquifers and the circulation of seawater through sediments that occurs along the coastline and across the continental shelf. It is an important, yet often overlooked, part of global nutrient, trace metal, and carbon inputs to the ocean. SGD can greatly affect the water quality of coastal environments, especially in areas that are already vulnerable to eutrophication (excess nutrients) and hypoxia (low oxygen). Intermittently Closed and Open Lakes or Lagoons (ICOLLs), also known as coastal lagoons or estuaries in some regions, are common ecosystems along the world’s shorelines and often experience hypoxia. Previous work done along the coast of Australia has indicated that groundwater may be up to 90% of water input to ICOLLs. Amy will build on this work by assessing whether SGD drives widespread hypoxia in ICOLLs. Radon, radium, nutrients, nutrient/water isotopes, and physical parameters within four ICOLLs will be determined to understand the effects of SGD on the water quality. These are highly sensitive estuarine environments, and understanding the fluxes that affect water quality will be useful in protecting and maintaining them. This study will highlight the importance of SGD in the coastal ocean and elucidate the link between SGD and hypoxia. This program will also help foster an international professional and academic network outside of the United States, which is vital to solving global water crises and pollution issues. Groundwater discharge and potential contamination needs more attention, especially considering the majority of freshwater utilized in the world by humanity is groundwater. Amy is looking forward to expanding her knowledge of the groundwater system outside local regions as an important part of her career path.
Stephanie J. Wilson
Virginia Institute of Marine Science
Stephanie is currently a Ph.D. student at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science. She is interested in marine biogeochemistry and specifically nutrient cycling in coastal ecosystems. Nitrogen is an important limiting nutrient for primary production in marine ecosystems. Her current research focuses on the sources, fates, and cycling of nitrogen in a subterranean estuary (STE) in Virginia, USA. STEs form at the coastline where groundwater is advected and mixes with overlying seawater. STEs may act as either sources or sinks of nitrogen to overlying seawater. Stephanie’s LOREX project will focus on the question: are subterranean estuaries a source or sink of nitrogen to the coastal ocean? To address this question, data compiled from STE’s around the world will be used to complete a meta-analysis of nitrogen in STEs. The STEs will be grouped by features such as sediment type and location before examining nitrogen concentrations along salinity gradients to determine source or sink behavior. The outcomes of this project have important implications regarding the cycling of groundwater nitrogen as it is discharged through STEs to the global ocean. Stephanie will be collaborating with Dr. Isaac Santos at Southern Cross University, Coffs Harbor to complete this work. As a part of the LOREX program, she looks forward to learning more about international collaboration, creating new connections with other program participants as well as colleagues at the host institution, and developing new research skills and techniques.
Southern Cross University, Australia
Southern Cross University at Lismore
Alia N. Al-Haj
Alia is a 3rd year Ph.D. student at Boston University studying coastal biogeochemistry in Dr. Robinson “Wally” Fulweiler’s lab. Her dissertation focuses on methane cycling in seagrass meadows. Methane has a global warming potential 34x that of carbon dioxide on a 100-year time scale. Seagrasses play an important role in the marine carbon cycle, with a hectare burying 10x more carbon than terrestrial forests. However, there is little information on carbon lost from seagrasses via methane emissions. This information is critical when assessing the net benefit of seagrass ecosystems as a greenhouse gas sink. The few studies that have quantified diffusive methane fluxes from seagrasses report that these ecosystems are methane sources. While there are a small number of studies on diffusive air-sea emissions of methane from seagrasses, to date there is little understanding of methane transport pathways in seagrass ecosystems. Alia will be working with Dr. Damien Maher at Southern Cross University on quantifying methane transport pathways in seagrass meadows. Her goals for her time in the LOREX program include (1) determining the dominant physical pathway for methane transport to the atmosphere in seagrass meadows, (2) determining the dominant mechanism for methanogenesis and methanotrophy in seagrass dominated sediments using isotopic analyses, and (3) developing a methane budget for a subtropical basin. Their results will help determine a more accurate carbon storage capacity of seagrass meadows.
Kalina C. Grabb
MIT/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Kalina has always had a strong passion for the ocean and she feels lucky to be able to combine her background in earth science and environmental engineering with her interests in oceanography. She has been able to explore this passion as a 3rd year Ph.D. student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (MIT/WHOI) Joint Program, in the department of chemical oceanography. Her Ph.D. focuses on reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are short-lived oxygen-containing molecules that play essential roles in the health and biogeochemistry of the ocean. Traditionally ROS production is attributed to stress within organisms, however, evidence is mounting that extracellular ROS is beneficial for organisms, including corals. Most of Kalina’s thesis is focused on the ROS dynamics associated with corals in order to better understand coral health. In order to characterize the production and decay mechanisms of ROS associated with coral, it is essential to investigate the reactions of ROS with other substances (i.e. metals and minerals) present within the environment. The LOREX program presents an opportunity for Kalina to collaborate with Dr. Andrew Rose at Southern Cross University in order to complete the first systematic study that directly explores the reaction between one specific ROS, superoxide, and Fe(III)-bearing minerals. The goal of this project is to identify other potential sources and sinks of ROS. Through this, we can better understand how superoxide alters the redox environment and interacts with the iron redox cycle within Fe(III)-bearing minerals. This study will characterize the impact of ROS on redox conditions within the environment and places Kalina’s Ph.D. thesis research in larger context by providing an insight to the links between ROS and other biogeochemical cycles. Overall, this opportunity will provide Kalina with the opportunity to establish an international collaboration between two of the leading labs in ROS and minerology.
Josué G. Millán
Indiana State University
Josué is a Ph.D. student from Puerto Rico at Indiana State University pursuing a degree in Spatial and Earth Sciences. His research focus is in Earth evolution, the intersection of geology and biology and the complex interactions between life and the environment. He is specifically interested in understanding the sequestration of atmospheric CO2 and the oceanic geochemical cycling of carbon. Phytoplankton forms the bases of the marine food web and plays an essential role in the oceans Carbon pump. The nature of primary productivity and phytoplankton dynamics is crucial for the management of our natural resources as well to understand what role they will play in modern climate variability. The results of his LOREX project intent to be used to validate existing biogeochemical models and provide better parameters for new ones to understand atmospheric-oceanic systems.
Since the beginning of his academic life, Josué’s goal was to become part of the nationally constant influx of Latinos in STEM that contributes and promotes a tidal wave of knowledge and positive change to our society. The current role of a scientist in society is changing and expanding. Josué has realized that his generation has the responsibility to reestablish the leading role the scientific community had in guiding our nation. Through his journey, Josué has learned that he is passionate about interdisciplinary research that brings together different scientific disciplines. The understanding of life on our planet and beyond is something that he finds amazing and stunning, with a central emphasis on the interconnections of biogeochemistry, molecular biology, and environmental processes. Hence, his research aspirations are defined by time: past, present, and future. For that reason, Josué’s research interest includes understanding the origins of life and speciation, examining the response of ecosystems to current environmental change, and the feasibility of life beyond our planet. Recently, Josué has integrated scientific advocacy to his aspirations due to the importance it brings to do science with courage and determination.
Inter University Institute for Marine Science in Eilat, Israel
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Ben is currently a PhD student in the Center for Limnology at the University of Wisconsin- Madison where his thesis focuses on disturbances in aquatic food webs including the invasion of Spiny Water Flea to inland Wisconsin lakes and the decline in Great Lakes Cisco community. Much of Ben’s research incorporates geometric morphometric techniques to understand ecomorphology in fishes as well as stable isotope analysis to understand food web relationships. Ben is especially interested in applied ecological questions with an eco-evolutionary twist. Through ASLO LOREX, Ben will be studying the body morphology of Rabbitfish in both their native range of the Red Sea and their invaded range of the Mediterranean Sea. Further, using the extensive fish preserved fish collection at the Tel Aviv Zoological Museum, Ben will quantify Rabbitfish morphology changes throughout their ~60 years of invasion. Ben notes that while ecological invasions are damaging, he enjoys studying them as they are a unique opportunity to study evolution at a reasonable timescale. Ben is excited for the opportunity to apply similar techniques and ecological theory as his thesis to a vastly different ecosystem than he has previously worked in. Additionally, he looks forward to experiencing international collaboration and the student cohort community in the LOREX program.
MIT/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Mallory is a PhD candidate in the MIT/WHOI Joint Program in Chemical Engineering, where she works on methods to study the marine carbon cycle in coastal oceans. Her thesis focuses on the development of an autonomous dissolved inorganic carbon sensor which will be deployed in an experiment to study inorganic calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation in the Red Sea, as well as from a remotely operated vehicle at sea to study carbonate chemistry across deep coral reefs on the West Florida shelf. Mallory holds a Masters in Earth Sciences focused on development of the carbonate clumped isotope paleothermometer in desert soils, and a Bachelors in Physics and Chemical Engineering from Syracuse University. When she is not in the lab, she can be found roaming around Cape Cod, running, biking, and gardening as much as possible.
A fundamental pathway in the marine carbon cycle is the biological precipitation of calcium carbonate as shells and skeletons. Inorganic CaCO3 precipitation is generally assumed to be insignificant in marine carbon cycling, but laboratory experiments and observations in certain settings, like in the Little Bahama Banks, have shown that inorganic CaCO3 precipitation may occur on suspended sediments, which can enter coastal waters through floods, rivers, dust, and resuspension events. The goal of this project is to evaluate the significance of this type of CaCO3 precipitation in the Red Sea at Eilat, Israel, where warm water temperatures, high CaCO3 supersaturation, and large particle loads from the surrounding desert may trigger inorganic CaCO3 precipitation. At IUI, she will work on a coastal mesocosm experiment from which bottle samples and in-situ chemical sensors measurements (including pH, pCO2, and a newly developed dissolved inorganic carbon sensor from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution) will allow us to track high resolution carbonate precipitation during simulated flood and airborne dust deposition events.
University of Haifa, Israel
The Leon H. Charney School of Marine Sciences, Haifa
Texas A&M University at Galveston
Jessica started working in a phytoplankton physiology lab after she received her Bachelor’s degree in 2015. Most of the research she has been involved in up until this point has focused on the Deepwater Horizon oil spill of 2010 and the effects it had on the microbial community. She has recently decided to go back to school for her master’s degree in Marine Biology. Although her background is in oil spill research, she decided to change direction a little bit for her Master’s project. Her thesis project, done through the LOREX program at the University of Haifa in Israel, will be investigating the physiological responses of coastal phytoplankton species when exposed to the brine effluent released from desalination plants. In addition, she is interested to see if changes in water quality caused by a these plants affect coastal phytoplankton communities in such a way that would negatively affect the plant itself. Desalination plants help to supplement freshwater where traditional resources can no longer sustain a population or a region. It is expected that the amount of desalination plants will increase globally as population continues to grow. As desalination plants become necessary in new locations around the world, the observations from this experiment could help predict potential changes to the affected coastal phytoplankton communities. Her goals for the LOREX program are to gain a better understanding of phytoplankton communities affected by desalination plants, and to contribute to a relatively sparse body of knowledge that is bound to become increasingly relevant as the world’s population continues to grow, and water shortages become a more common problem.
University of Maryland
Hunter is Master’s student at the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science’s Chesapeake Biological Laboratory. His thesis revolves around how coral skeletal geochemistry is used to reconstruct past ocean conditions. Sometimes referred to as ‘The Tree Rings of the Ocean’, corals produce seasonal growth bands in their skeletons. If paleo-oceanographers measure particular geochemical proxies in those growth bands, such as skeletal strontium-to-calcium ratios (Sr/Ca), they can reconstruct past ocean temperatures and better inform models that seek to predict future changes in climate. Specifically, Hunter looks at variability in seawater Sr/Ca ratios to see how small changes in local seawater chemistry can make large impacts on coral Sr/Ca-based temperature reconstructions. Through the ASLO LOREX program, Hunter will be working with Dr. Tali Mass in Haifa, Israel. There he will measure seawater Sr/Ca ratios in the Red Sea to better inform coral paleoclimate studies about the potential mechanisms and drivers for seawater Sr/Ca variability.
Prior to his master’s program, Hunter took what is commonly called a ‘non-traditional’ path to the sciences. After receiving a B.A. from Emerson College in English and Journalism, Hunter went on to work in the sales industry for two years. In the Spring of 2014, he returned to school to complete a variety of math and science courses with the goal of being admitted into a master’s program for paleoclimatology. He spent a year working as a research technician on a remote marine field station before gaining acceptance into the Marnie-Estuarine Environmental Program through the University of Maryland. He has presented this research at multiple conferences and looks forward to continuing his studies of paleoclimatology by obtaining a doctorate in Oceanography. Outside of his research, Hunter is passionate about outreach, science communication, and creative outlets for both individual and shared expression.
University of Massachusetts-Dartmouth
Alanna is a PhD student at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth School for Marine Science and Technology, where she studies the interdisciplinary connection between biogeochemistry and fisheries. Before beginning her PhD studies, Alanna graduated from the University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science in 2017 with majors in biology and marine science and minors in chemistry and psychology. Her undergraduate thesis research focused on identification and distribution patterns of larval cephalopods of the Eastern Caribbean during an anomalous freshwater plume year. After completing her degree, Alanna went on to work for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration where she participated in research projects studying the early life history of Atlantic bluefin tuna. For her thesis work, Alanna hopes to use her background in bluefin as well as her interest in biogeochemistry to build a project utilizing signatures in seawater that can be applied to better understand life history strategies and food web dynamics. Her LOREX project will serve to achieve that goal. Alanna will be working as part of a larger study with goals to measure taxa-specific variability and the various phytoplankton C:N:P ratios in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea with regards to natural and manipulated difference in N:P supply ratio, and to determine which phytoplankton taxa of that area are the dominant drivers of local carbon export. She will be primarily focused on the manipulations of the study in the form of mesocosm experiments. This specific aspect of the project will show stoichiometric ratios of nitrogen and phosphorous in Eastern Mediterranean phytoplankton as they are subjected to varying environmental conditions.
Amanda is from New Jersey and obtained a BA in chemistry. She is currently a PhD candidate in the Biochemistry and Microbiology Department at Rutgers in the lab of Dr. Debashish Bhattacharya. For her thesis, Amanda is taking a multi-omics (metabolomic, metagenomic, metatranscriptomic, proteomic) approach in understanding coral health to aid conservation. The main goal of her work will be to identify metabolic activity linked to various forms of stress, in addition to adaptation responses, throughout the holobiont. In order to achieve this, she is currently working on identifying novel coral metabolites and their perspective gene clusters in Montipora capitata. This is the work Amanda will be continuing at the University of Haifa with Dr. Tali Mass. During her LOREX project, Amanda will be growing various coral species in the Red Sea and Mediterranean under multiple stressors (high radiation, high acidity, and elevated temperatures) to determine the metabolic response of the holobiont to future coral ecosystem conditions. Unfortunately, 25% of coral reefs are already considered damaged beyond repair because of human ignorance. It will take more than one field to correct the effect humans have had on the coral holobiont. Therefore, Amanda is also taking part in a fellowship at Rutgers designed to help communicate science by educating fellows to combine scientific knowledge with the economic, engineering, political, and outreach expertise to reverse climate change. Amanda hopes that the LOREX program can assist her in learning how to communicate and educate others on scientific or conservation issues.
Umeå University, Sweden
Louisiana State University
Influences of organic matter sources on dissolved inorganic carbon in the carbon budget of a boreal lake system
Most boreal lakes are net heterotophic and thus represent a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere. An estimated 73 Tg of carbon is transferred from these lakes to the atmosphere annually. As temperature and runoff increase with climate change, this amount can be expected to increase. Within a changing climate, northern lakes will experience increased flux of organic and inorganic carbon from surrounding terrestrial sources in both the dissolved and the particulate phase, leading to higherCO2emission. However, existing studies are not clear as to which form of carbon input—dissolved organic carbon, dissolved inorganic carbon, or particulate organic carbon—is the dominant source of CO2 emitted from these lakes. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) represents the CO2, HCO3-, and CO3-2dissolved in an aquatic environment, and is thus a good measurement of CO2that will be emitted into the atmosphere or transported elsewhere. The goal of this study is to carry out ex situ sediment core incubation experiments from two contrasting lakes in boreal Sweden to determine the primary source of DIC production.
Sarah H Burnet
University of Idaho
Assessing the role of sediment-released phosphorus from laboratory incubated cores to their nutrient mass balance collected across a spatial extent in arctic lakes
In many lakes, internal loading of phosphorus (P) from bottom sediments contributes a large fraction to the annual whole-lake P budget and is known to significantly delay improvements of water quality after reducing external sources of P. My objective will be to test the hypothesis that P-release from sediments varies directly with location and headwater characteristics of lakes which influences their thermal stratification, metabolism, and oxygen regimes. Understanding this fraction is crucial to place whole-lake P-budgets in context for i) remediation programs and ii) to predict future changes such as those related to climatic warming. I aim to expand my north temperate data from Willow Creek Reservoir in northeastern Oregon, USA, by collaborating with the Climate Impacts Research Centre (CIRC) associated with Umeå University to measure the sediment P-release rate of laboratory incubated cores collected from a suite of lakes along a latitudinal gradient in the arctic. My research in Oregon shows that the P released from replicate sediment cores collected at six spatially distinct sites varies widely (4.47 to 14.63 mg P/m2/d, even among similarly deep sites), suggesting that rates from multiple sites are needed to derive meaningful measures of internal P loading in lakes and reservoirs. This information can be used by managers to identify ‘hotspots’ to optimize in-lake treatments to reduce sediment-bound P, and by limnologists to predict changes in whole-lake P dynamics and thus the trajectory of lake communities (phytoplankton, zooplankton, nekton, etc.) and their interactions in response to large-scale changes such as those predicted to result from climatic warming.
Sierra E Cagle
Texas A&M University
A numerical model for the investigation of mixotrophic influences on plankton dynamics in warmer, browner boreal lakes
As the climate continues to change, majorly impacting boreal lake systems, it is important to understand how climate driven factors, such as warming and increased colored dissolved organic material (cDOM) will influence the plankton communities of these systems. I hypothesize that in warmer and browner boreal lakes, decreased light from cDOM will lessen the competitive ability of purely autotrophic species, while labile components of the cDOM stimulate the bacterioplankton populations that they compete with for nutrients. And, mixotrophs may be indirectly stimulated by increased cDOM through abiotic interactions between their autotrophic competitors and bacterioplankton prey. To test these hypotheses, I propose a project where a preexisting numerical model that is mechanistically driven and based on a chemostat design is modified to accommodate incorporation of equations governing the dynamics of cDOM concentration, a bacterioplankton population, and a mixotrophic plankton population. Findings from this study may have implications for understanding how biogeochemical cycling and food web structure of boreal lakes will change in the future and contribute to our understanding of how mixotrophy, a common characteristic among harmful and noxious algae, influences these species system invading abilities.
Nicholas A. Castillo
Florida International University
Examining the threat of contaminants to south Florida bonefish: a spatial approach
In South Florida, the recreational fishing industry accounts for a significant economic impact; within this region, the Bonefish fishery is particularly important. This fishery accounts for over half of the $8.0 billion annual revenue from recreational fishing. A decline in the Bonefish stock has been observed over the last decade. This study proposes an assessment of the threat of contaminants on Bonefish. In order to explore the threat of copper and pharmaceuticals to Bonefish, we propose a study utilizing a spatial approach asking how does exposure to key contaminants (copper and pharmaceuticals) vary across South Florida regions? We will analyze the effects of contaminants on a large spatial scale, comparing South Florida to other Caribbean basins, and on a small spatial, analyzing the presence of contaminants in prey relative to distance from shore and contaminant sources. (1) First we propose to conduct a tissue distribution study. The goal is to examine the fate of pharmaceuticals across different tissues (e.g., blood vs. muscle) (2) Second we will examine concentrations of copper and pharmaceuticals in Bonefish prey and a surrogate species in South Florida utilizing multiple transects. Recent studies have discovered elevated levels of copper contaminants in the Biscayne Bay region. In addition to the presence of copper at high enough levels to have potential physiological impacts on the Bonefish population, three previous studies detected the presence of pharmaceutical contaminants in South Florida waters. Previous work has shown that uptake of pharmaceuticals can be tissue-specific, and highlight the need to sample the appropriate tissue in order to assess the true risk of pharmaceuticals to Bonefish. Despite the documented presence of copper and pharmaceutical contaminants in South Florida, and the demonstrated potential for physiological effects on Bonefish, no previous studies have examined this topic; therein resides the justification for the proposed project.
University of Wisconsin - Madison
Factors associated with light availability and the effect on fish production across multiple lake-rich landscapes
Freshwater ecosystems and their fish communities are changing in response to climate, land use, habitat modifications, inputs of nutrients and other chemicals, biotic invasions, harvest, and other large-scale drivers. One of these drivers, water clarity, can greatly affect the productive capacity of fish populations by limiting light availability. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) inputs result in large-scale variation for northern lakes and overall tend to result in darkened water color. Widespread increases in DOC in northern lakes have been reported and therefore understanding how these changes will affect fish communities is vital to predicting and managing responses to future changes. Although light availability has been established to limit fish biomass and production, the response of fish productive capacity to factors associated with light availability, such as DOC concentration, water color, and nutrient inputs, as well as interactions between these factors, are not well understood. Therefore, I propose a cross-site comparison quantifying spatiotemporal trends in the productive capacity of top consumer fish populations relative to varying factors associated with light availability. I will assess whether within specific lakes, the DOC composition is more closely linked to water color or phytoplankton production (as regulated by total phosphorus (TP)concentration). Within these lakes, I will perform gill net surveys to quantify the productive capacity of top consumers and determine if this varies in relation to factors associated with DOC. Additionally, I will quantify variation in the trophic support pathways (i.e., benthic, pelagic, terrestrial) of fish production between lakes with different light availability drivers. I will test these questions in boreal lakes of Sweden and north temperate lakes of Wisconsin, USA. Further understanding of the interactions of these factors has implications for understanding fish population productivity given varying conditions as well as the trophic pathways that support these communities within the context of a changing climate.
University of New Hampshire
Assessing the influence of N cycling processes on greenhouse gas production in streams using steady state nutrient releases in Abisko, Sweden
Inland waters can be quantitatively significant sources of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere due to their ability to actively process terrestrial inputs. However, considerable uncertainty remains in regional and global estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from freshwater ecosystems, particularly streams. Controls on greenhouse gas production in fluvial ecosystems, such as the influence of nitrogen (N)cycling processes, are also poorly understood. The main objective of this study is to determine how greenhouse gas flux from streams changes in response to manipulated water chemistry (i.e. increased N concentrations) through a series of steady state nutrient releases in the Miellajökka Catchment within the Abisko Scientific Research Station in Abisko, Sweden. These experiments will improve understanding of how N cycling processes affect greenhouse gas production. Developing an understanding of the factors controlling greenhouse gas production in streams can help assess and predict how fluvial ecosystems will respond to changes in climate and land use. This knowledge can be used to incorporate emissions from streams into regional and global greenhouse gas emission inventories.
University of Cincinnati
Evaluating the role of natural substrate in the nutrient limitation of Arctic biofilms
This project aims to examine how stream substrate size and composition influences the nutrient limitation of Arctic biofilm communities. This research will fill a critical knowledge gap regarding how natural substrate influences nutrient dynamics and allow researchers to accurately assess how Arctic streams will respond to continued environmental change, specifically increased nutrient availability. To elucidate how stream substrate size and composition can influence the nutrient limitation of stream biofilm communities I propose conducting a whole-stream nutrient enrichment study in a natural stream channel over several time points. Arctic stream biofilms have been found to be nitrogen-limited, and I propose to choose a subset of streams (N= 4) from Myrstenerand co-authors (2018) to examine if similar patterns of nitrogen limitation are observed on natural substrates. The distribution of substrate size would be characterized at each site to evaluate the influence of stream substrate size and composition on the nutrient limitation of biofilms. At each timepoint, nutrient uptake, primary production, respiration, and biofilm biomass will be quantified at randomly distributed locations within each reach to evaluate how nutrient limitation changes over time. I hypothesize that sites with smaller substrate will have higher and faster rates of nutrient uptake.
Arizona State University
Influence of vegetation on net ecosystem carbon balance in subarctic mire thaw
Permafrost zones in the subarctic store significant quantities of highly labile carbon. However, recent rising temperatures have resulted in the melting of significant areas of permafrost, making available the underlying, carbon-rich peat. Permafrost thawing has resulted in an increase in CO2 and CH4 emissions; given the vast quantity of carbon these areas store, this phenomenon has significant implications for global atmospheric greenhouse gases concentrations. Melting permafrost results in increased greenhouse gas concentrations and creates a positive feedback loop promoting continually increasing temperatures and increasing permafrost thaw. However, a recent study of thaw ponds in the subarctic Stordalen Mire found that thaw-induced emissions, which significantly offset the carbon sink capacity of the landscape, were reduced in ponds with vegetation (Kuhn et al. 2018). This suggests vegetation may assist in the retention of carbon in these ponds following permafrost thawing. While it is recognized that vegetation can play a pivotal part in carbon emissions, the role of vegetation in carbon balance of thawing permafrost is not well understood. In the proposed research I will explore, how do mire thaw pond primary producer communities influence net ecosystem carbon balance? Particularly, I will investigate how primary producer community composition and functional characteristics of primary producer species influence the net ecosystem carbon balance of permafrost thaw ponds. Given the potential impact of these permafrost regions on global carbon cycling, and the likelihood of greater permafrost thaw in the future as a result of climate change, it is imperative that we understand mechanism influencing the changing carbon cycle regimes in these systems.
Carly Rae Olson
University of Notre Dame
Dynamic modeling of intra- and inter-regional heterogeneity in drivers of lake carbon burial
Lake ecosystems have historically been considered a ‘passive pipe’, where matter from the terrestrial environment simply moves through, ultimately reaching the ocean untransformed. This paradigm has recently been invalidated; lakes are now regarded as biogeochemical hotspots, where terrestrially-derived carbon (C)is transformed and lost, often through burial. Despite this paradigm shift, there is an inadequate, process-level understanding of the drivers regulating lake sediment C burial. In fact, this knowledge gap has led to opposing conclusions regarding the lake sediment C sink among arctic, boreal, and temperate regions. Specifically, allochthonous C dominates C burial in boreal and arctic systems as opposed to autochthonous C in temperate systems. My objective is to reconcile the observed inter-and intra-region heterogeneity in drivers of arctic and temperate lake C burial dynamics. We know that ecosystem processes such as primary production and sediment respiration directly influence the quantity and source of C that is buried. We also know that land cover and lake morphometry indirectly modulate C source through nutrient and oxygen limitation, respectively. To tackle these complex relationships, I will extend a dynamic process model that I have previously developed to explore inter-and intra-regional lake C burial. I will run model simulations across three gradients: catchment nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), allochthonous C load, and lake morphometry. I will then compare and contrast the relative importance of primary production, sedimentation, and sediment respiration in C burial across simulated gradients. Data from lakes in the Swedish Arctic provided by Cristian Gudasz at Umeå University and my dissertation in the temperate Midwest of the U.S.A. will be used to assess how well the model predicts patterns of C burial. The model will serve as a unifying framework to explain differences in the observed relationships in lake C burial across regions.
San Francisco State University
Zooplankton growth in northern fishless lakes along a gradient in terrestrial organic matter inputs
In many north temperate and boreal surface waters terrestrial organic matter (tOM) inputs have increased over the past several decades. Increased tOM alters lake ecosystem functions by limiting light and introducing nutrients. It is unclear how increased tOM affects lake productivity and bottom-up control. Copepods are a good species for studying lake productivity because they are the principal trophic link between phytoplankton and fish and therefore very important in food web dynamics. In order to determine how tOM influences lake productivity we propose to measure somatic growth rates of copepods across a gradient of tOM in arctic lakes in northern Sweden. Growth rate is the key rate process in copepod secondary productivity. We will measure growth rates of the dominant calanoid copepod, Eudiaptomus graciloides, using a modified version of the artificial cohort method and an image analysis technique in conjunction with tOM concentration measurements. We will also measure chlorophyll, an indicator of phytoplankton biomass, and relate it to copepod growth rate. As tOM is predicted to increase with climate change, this research will be valuable in helping to better understand the effects of tOM on productivity and how it will affect lake ecosystems.
Breena S Riley
Tarleton State University
Photosynthesis to respiration ratios and diatom assemblages along stream lengths in northern Sweden
Investigators at the Climate Impacts Research Centre (CIRC) of Umeå University seek to understand how carbon cycles through aquatic systems. Determining stream trophic status (heterotrophic versus autotrophic) is a tool which may be used to better understand carbon cycling in streams. To date, no research describes in-stream carbon cycling and trophic status in relation to phytoplankton in northern Sweden. Diatom indices are a well-established technique to determine water quality and to elucidate trophic status. Photosynthesis to respiration (P/R) ratios are also used to determine both qualities. Tools to measure both parameters are readily available at CIRC or may be easily obtained from the student’s home institution. Three types of samples will be collected from each site: diatom samples, isotopic oxygen (18O-DO), and nutrient samples. Diatom samples will be used to determine diatom indices. Isotopic oxygen will measure P/R ratios. Nutrient samples (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus) will determine water quality. Data collected from each site will be compared within stream sites and across streams locations to determine stream trophic status. It is predicted that streams will change from autotrophic at the headwaters to increasingly heterotrophic further downstream. Data collected from Sweden may potentially be compared to stream conditions in Texas to assess stream trophic status at a broader scale.
Dalhousie University, Canada
The Department of Oceanography
Contact person: ***
Deployment of an in situ porewater sampling system/underwater mass spectrometer in Halifax Harbor and the Bay of Fundy
The importance of permeable marine sediments in global biogeochemical cycling has recently been recognized. These sediments cover the majority of the continental shelves and act as a filter of human nutrient inputs to the coastal ocean. In particular, they are thought to be key sites of denitrification, removing reactive nitrogen from the ocean at greater rates than other marine environments. Accurate measurements in permeable sediments is no trivial task, as mechanisms such as waves and tides drive flows through the interstitial space, influencing the biogeochemistry of their porewater. This porewater advection cannot be replicated by conventional sediment sampling methods. As a result, our knowledge of the magnitude and direction of chemical fluxes in permeable sediments is very limited. To address this, my Ph.D. research is focused on developing a porewater sampler coupled to an underwater mass spectrometer which can make measurements directly in permeable sediments. My proposed research exchange project is to conduct two field deployments in collaboration with Dalhousie University in Nova Scotia with two main objectives: (1) To test my instrument in the field and guide future development, and (2) To obtain some of the first observations ever made in permeable sediment environments. The first deployment will take place in shallow sandy sediments off an island near the mouth of Halifax Harbour over a tidal cycle. Results from this test will be used to develop a denitrification estimate for the harbour. If deployment in this relatively stable environment is successful, a second deployment will be conducted in the Bay of Fundy. We will deploy the instrument at low tide and make measurements as the water depth varies to a maximum of 5 m. This test will provide insights on porewater chemistry under more extreme tidal conditions.
University of South Carolina
Modeling estuarine phytoplankton community responses to inorganic carbon species: simulations with changing carbonic anhydrase activity
Marine phytoplankton exist in an environment characterized with high concentrations of HCO3-and low concentrations of CO2 (aq). Phytoplankton species differ in CO2 requirements and those taxonomic differences in carbon acquisition are exceptionally important when determining the ecological interactions of phytoplankton groups. Variation in the functional trait of dissolved inorganic carbon uptake suggests that there is a capacity for future changes in phytoplankton communities to increasing atmospheric CO2 over the next century. Indirect effects of ocean acidification on productivity and composition of planktonic species may have long-term impacts on trophic interactions between planktonic food sources and higher-level coastal organisms. A collaboration with Dr. Finkel at Dalhousie University would provide the opportunity to answer questions about shifts in marine phytoplankton community structure and productivity due to changes in seawater carbonate chemistry. The main purpose would be to create a sub-model that includes the uptake preferences and carbon acquisition strategies of major estuarine phytoplankton. A focus of the model would be on carbonic anhydrase activity, a component of carbon concentrating mechanisms which actively accumulated inorganic carbon significantly greater than concentrations in the bulk seawater environment. This sub-model could then be integrated into existing ecological models that look at phytoplankton productivity and composition. The model would be parameterized using traits from my own work, the literature, and an experiment conducted in Dr. Finkel’s lab investigating elemental stoichiometry and macromolecular content. The Finkel lab at Dalhousie University is already arranged for those analyses and a further collaboration with Dr. Andrew Irwin in the Math and Statistics department at Dalhousie University makes this project realistic and achievable.
Washington State University Vancouver
Internal wave dynamics, breaking, and mixing in a small eutrophic lake
Internal waves are common in lakes and oceans, where they can mix and transport heat, nutrients, and pollutants, with possible consequences for sediment transport, biogeochemistry and ecology. Using high-resolution observations of temperature and velocity, we propose to examine the dynamics of internal waves propagating and breaking above a sloping lakebed. Observations reveal a remarkable variety of internal wave forms within just 1 m of the lakebed. We identify four different wave forms: intensely breaking bores, undular bores, solitons, and non-breaking cold fronts. Observations of near-bed currents and wave propagation speeds, as well as “offshore” wave amplitudes, will be used to identify the factors controlling wave form. Propagation speeds will be compared with simple linear theories for waves reflecting from a sloping bed. Finally, estimated turbulent energy dissipation rates and buoyancy fluxes will be compared across the different waveforms during both upslope and downslope flow, to evaluate the importance of internal waves to boundary layer mixing.
Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Integration of prototype sensors into the SeaCycler profiling mooring
The net flux of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas into the global ocean, driven biologically by net community production (NCP) and by physical forcing, helps to reduce the effects of climate change by removing CO2from the atmosphere. Currently, assumptions need to be made to constrain the air-sea gas fluxes and NCP with in-situ measurements because available sensor technology cannot observe all quantities necessary to close these mix layer budgets. With recent developments in sensor technology, a combination of sensors, some still in prototype form, when integrated into a moored profiling platform (the SeaCycler) simultaneously determine NCP and the air-sea flux of CO2. Deployment to test the SeaCycler and the integrated prototype sensors in the Labrador Sea (LS), an area of particular importance to global carbon budget uncertainties, is the culmination of multiple NSF funded projects and collaboration between Dalhousie University (Dal) and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO). Included in the deployment testing is the integration of two of the prototype sensors, the self-calibrating SeapHOx, and the in-situ dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) sensor, both developed in the Martz lab of which I am a member. In preparation for this deployment, if I am a recipient of the LOREX, I would work to integrate both prototype sensors into the SeaCycler system at Dal.
Florida International University
Phytoplankton and detritus biomass estimates in the mesopelagic Gulf of Mexico as a function of seasonality
The Gulf of Mexico is an oceanic region of economic importance because of human activities, such as: commercial fisheries and oil exploitation. The fishes and squids of the mesopelagic zone (200 –1000-m depth) are prey to commercially important consumers (e.g., tuna and billfishes). The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWHOS) threatened the biota of the mesopelagic ecosystem, as well as the epipelagic and neritic zones. The area seaward of the DWHOS site has been sampled intensely through trawl surveys over the past eight years, improving our understanding of the organisms that live from the surface to 1500-m depth. Much of these data have been centered on higher trophic levels (e.g., macrozooplankton and micronekton). However, data for the lower trophic levels (i.e., phytoplankton and detritus estimates) are scarce. Phytoplankton and detritus estimates that do exist for the oceanic Gulf of Mexico do not often account for seasonality. However, the proximity of the Mississippi River to the most intensely studied region after the DWHOS suggests that nutrient concentrations and the subsequent primary productivity of the region change on a seasonal basis. Through a collaboration with Dr. Katja Fennel and Dalhousie University three objectives will be examined: 1) the phytoplankton biomass will be estimated for the oceanic northern Gulf of Mexico seaward of the DWHOS site on a seasonal basis, 2) with these phytoplankton estimates, the detritus stock of the top 1000 m within our study site will be estimated, and 3) phytoplankton and detritus stocks will be assimilated into a mass-balanced ecosystem model that is currently being developed for the mesopelagic Gulf of Mexico.
Southern Cross University, Australia
National Marine Science Centre at Coffs Harbor
Contact person: ***
University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
Unravelling wastewater leakages to coastal waters under future sea levels
Sea level rise (SLR) is currently impacting coastal infrastructures worldwide during tidally-driven nuisance flooding. Many of the world’s largest and densest cities are located on coastline sand have aging wastewater infrastructure that were designed overlooking SLR. Sydney Harbour, Australia suffers from wastewater pollution, and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD)has not yet been investigated as a mechanism for wastewater delivery to the bay. Wastewater is enriched in organic matter and a number of pollutants. Wastewater leakages to groundwater may eventually reach surface waters, promoting pollution, but this has not previously been directly investigated. I propose to study wastewater-enriched SGD using a combination of pharmaceuticals, naturally occurring groundwater tracers (radon and radium), greenhouse gases (GHGs), and stable isotopes (δ15N-NO3-and δ15N-N2O). The field portion of the study will be conducted in two phases during high spring tides as a proxy for future sea levels: (1) an initial radon, GHG, and pharmaceutical survey to map locations of SGD and wastewater discharge, and (2) radon and GHG time-series at three locations determined to have wastewater input and three baseline control locations. These locations will also be sampled for pharmaceuticals, radium, nutrients, and δ15N-NO3-and δ15N-N2Oat low and high tide. This study will result in differentiation between wastewater-enriched SGD and “baseline” SGD-derived wastewater in Sydney Harbour. This study is important because it addresses SLR-driven wastewater and SGD fluxes and would be the first to illuminate the mechanism of tidally-driven wastewater-enriched SGD-derived pollution. The methodology used in this study ideally will be used as a model for projecting future impacts of SLR on wastewater infrastructure of coastal communities worldwide.
Southern Cross University, Australia
Southern Cross University at Lismore
Contact person: ***
University of Washington
Physical impacts of mangrove removal: re-evaluation of sediment characteristics and transport on intertidal surfaces >10-years after mangrove removal in Tauranga Harbor, New Zealand
Low-lying coastal regions throughout the world are densely populated, economically valuable, and vulnerable to sea-level rise and natural disasters. Mangrove forests increase the resilience of tropical coastlines to erosion or inundation by retaining sediment and damping waves. There is a pressing need to understand how landforms will change as mangrove forests are removed for agricultural expansion. However, it is often challenging to collect field measurements to quantify sediment transport and deposition in mangroves, especially over multiple years. A mangrove removal project in the Waikaraka Estuary of Tauranga Harbor, New Zealand has provided an opportunity to study decadal-scale changes associated with deforestation. Beginning in 2005, mangroves were removed to reduce fine sediment retention in the harbor. The sediment dynamics were assessed in forested, cleared, and naturally unvegetated tidal surfaces of the estuary during the removal period. Initially, fine sediment was flushed out of the cleared region, but tidal flats were still predominantly muddy. The same measurements will be collected now, >10 years after removal. The character and organic content of sediment will be assesed in subsampled, 1-m cores. Sediment traps will be deployed to measure the composition of transported sediment, and deposition rates will be measured using horizon markers. It is hypothesized that continued mangrove root decomposition and storm activity would have removed fine material, resulting in an overall coarsening of tidal surfaces. These field measurements will provide validation and constraints for models of coastal change associated with mangrove removal. This project will simultaneously aid in developing skills and relationships which will be leveraged for future international research. Many vulnerable coastal regions are located in developing or politically turbulent countries with limited access to scientific resources. Collaboration and scientific exchange will be critical for keeping pace with the many challenges that sea-level rise will bring.
University of Massachusetts
Nitrogen stable isotopes in Australian Utricularia as an early indicator of eutrophication.
The genus Utricularia is a carnivorous plant that occurs in nutrient-poor wetlands. This genus of carnivorous plants uses bladders to trap and digest small invertebrates as a source of nitrogen to compensate the lack of nutrients in its habitats. There are currently59 known Australian species which comprises ~25% of the world population. Utriculariain Australia are of particular importance, because as much as 75% of the native species are strictly endemic,and form their own phylogenetic clade. Unfortunately, due to the introduction of excess nitrogen and other nutrients from livestock farming and crop fertilizers, these plants and their fragile habitats are disappearing fast. However, it is unclear exactly how such nutrient enrichment will affect how the plants themselves process nutrients. This is a critical research gap because Utricularia may depend primarily on carnivory under ‘pristine’ water conditions, but are known to drop their trap sand switch to photosynthetic energy when the water quality declines. I hypothesize that they may shift their nutrient intake from prey to the environment. I therefore propose that Utricularia could be used as an early indicator for eutrophication by measuring shifts in their isotopic composition (del15N values). The proposed collaboration with the Centre for Coastal Biogeochemistry, NSW, Australia will enable me to master these isotopic techniques and apply them to Australian native Utricularia in waterways with varying degrees of eutrophications. The outcome of this collaboration will form the foundation for future research into Utricularia specifically and Australian wetland habitat degradation more broadly.
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University (FAMU)
Implementation of the foram index in coral larvae relocation sites at Philippines’ Islands
In the Philippines’ Islands, more than the 90% of coral reef ecosystems have been negatively affected mainly by anthropogenic inputs (e.g., overfishing and blast fishing). Agencies had to declare a "reef degradation" status in the archipelago. Hence, a better understanding of the health of the reefs from the Philippines’ Islands is a priority for improving stakeholders' decisions in support to resources managers for proper management actions. Given that, the settlement of coral’s larvae has been occurring and resulting in a positive management methodology to proliferate corals growth in degraded reefs. However, a monitor tool that can evaluate the settings conditions, and suggest the further coral development is necessary. For this reason, the application of ecological indexes such as the FORAM Index (FI) as a bioindicator tool can address the reef conditions. FI has been applied worldwide (e.g., Caribbean, Australia, and the Mediterranean). The FI is a method used to determine the water quality of the reef's surroundings using foraminifers as indicators; FI values will reflect the actual reef conditions and will suggest further development in the ecosystem. In our experiment, we will assess the larvae relocation areas from the Philippines Islands using the FI as an indicator tool and determine water quality parameters(e.g., pH, DO, PO4, chlorophyll-a). Methodologically, the locations were experimental larval relocation in the Bolinao-Anda Reefs Complex will be sampled. At each station water and sediment samples will be collected to measure the variables mentioned before. Our results will measure the effectiveness of the FI, determine which water quality parameters(s) are or could affect the coral survivorship, identify current reef conditions; and will contribute to resources managers with a rapid and cost-effective biomonitoring tool to improve management efforts.
Texas A&M University
Comparing active microbial communities in mangrove sediments
Mangrove wetlands can store carbon that can be transformed into methane and other greenhouse gasses. Microbial communities are susceptible to shifts due to climate change; largely driving the carbon cycle within the sediment. An increase in seasonal rain, droughts, and warming winters can alter the vegetation distribution, and structure of the coastline; therefore, cause the microbial community structure and function to adapt in response. Shifts in microbial activity and abundance will subsequently cause geochemical cycles to fluctuate. It is vital to understand how microbes impact geochemical cycling in mangrove sediments in order to understand how this will impact changing coastlines. This project will investigate changing microbial communities with respect to geochemical cycles by collecting sediment for the following analyses: A) RNA/DNA extractions that will identify the active and total microbial community, respectively; B) methane headspace analyses to identify the flux of methane from the sediment column; and C) porewater analyses using colorimetric methods to investigate biogeochemical cycles in context of the carbon cycle. These three analyses will be useful for investigating the metabolisms of the active microbial communities and their relation to gas emissions. This project aims to compare mangrove systems in the southern atmosphere to previously sampled systems in the northern hemisphere. Statistical analyses of all data will be conducted to compare changes in geochemistry and the microbial community structure. Alpha, Beta, and Gamma diversity analyses for microbial communities will be determined. Links will be made between community structure and rate measurements using multivariate analyses (e.g., singular value decomposition, ANOVA). By understanding what drives microbial function, and therefore methane emissions, future predictions can be made regarding methane flux in mangrove ecosystems.
The effects of increased temperature on the feeding rates of coral reefs in the presence of high DMSP phytoplankton
As a consequence of climate change, coral bleaching has become widespread. Specifically increases in temperature have been shown to lead to the breakdown of symbiosis between corals and their symbionts. Within a healthy coral, Dimethylsulfuloniopropionate (DMSP) is produced and thought to have roles in coral thermoregulation, chemoattraction, osmoregulation, and antioxidant response. DMSP has also been found in macroalgae as a predation deterrent against microzooplankton, mainly protists. These findings raise questions about the effect that both climate change, specifically elevated temperatures, and high DMSP in macroalgae may be having on the effectiveness of coral feeding on this macroalgae. To gain a better understanding of coral feeding rates on phytoplankton with high DMSP and elevated temperature, a series of coral tanks will be set up to manipulate temperature and the presence or absence of high DMSP with phytoplankton. These experiments will be used to test the hypotheses that 1) high DMSP in phytoplankton will lead to low feeding rates of coral and 2) the addition of elevated temperature and high DMSP will lead to lower feeding rates of coral. The results of this study will help to better inform the ways in which climate change may be negatively affecting coral reef communities globally.
Inter University Institute for Marine Science in Eilat, Israel
Ashley Brooke Cohen
Stony Brook University
Aeolian reactive metal-driven microbial elemental sulfur disproportionation in low organic carbon sediment
Microbially-mediated elemental sulfur (S0) disproportionation significantly affects the stable isotope relative abundances in and the production of sulfate (SO4-2) and sulfide (S-2). However, this reaction is only energetically favorable under anoxic conditions when there is enough reactive iron or manganese to “scrub”S-2. For modern global geochemical mass balances or budgets, this phenomenon is thought to be restricted to permanently stratified water columns or coastal sediment with high fluxes of organic carbon (OC), and therefore is not considered significant. However, recent work by Blonder et al. (2017) on low-OC sediment underlying relatively deep water in the Gulf of Aqabaraises the possibility that high fluxes of aeolian reactive iron and manganese can fuel microbial S0disproportionation in a more widespread marine environment. To determine the impact of S0disproportionation on the production and consumption of sulfur species, microbial C production, and sulfur stable isotope signatures, it is critical to take in-situ rate measurements, as products and reactants may be turned over so rapidly that they are not detectable by chemical profiling. I propose an in-situ incubation study that will simultaneously: determine sulfur species and reactive metal concentration rate measurements, which reactive metal (if any) better promotes S0 disproportionation by serving as a S-2sink, and link the S0disproportionation reaction stoichiometry determined through those rate measurements to changes in sulfur stable isotope signatures of S0, S-2, and SO4-2. To calculate biovolumes and ultimately how much biomass carbon is being produced per mole S0, disproportionate r cells will be fluorescently labelled with a probe specific to their 16S rRNA; the probe will be designed through Stable-Isotope-ProbingDNA.
University of California, Santa Barbara
Compound-specific stable isotope analysis to enhance in situ coral monitoring
Reef-building corals meet nutritional needs by fixed organic carbon from their photosynthetic endosymbionts Symbiodinium and heterotrophic feeding on particles, zooplankton and dissolved organic carbon in the water column. While a great deal of coral research has focused on the symbiosis, the importance of coral feeding in supplying carbon and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) to the holobiont has become increasingly clear. Feeding acts as a mechanism for nutrient and carbon supply for biomass growth and reproduction and may become necessary for survival under “non-normal” conditions such as low-light, eutrophication, and elevated water temperatures that cause bleaching. Yet detailed metabolic feeding studies are often restricted to the laboratory, and in situ monitoring measurements are typically too coarse to discern key physiological processes that occur in changing environments. Here I propose the development of compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of amino acids for in situ coral monitoring.The15N/14N and 13C/12C ratios within essential and non-essential amino acids in one coral tissue sample can provide information on the source of the nitrogen and carbon the feeding strategy of the coral (% of biomass nitrogen and carbon heterotrophically acquired),and detailed resource allocation within the symbiosis. I propose to develop this low-effort sampling for long-term monitoring by ground-truthing the CSIA measurements with parallel bulk-tissue isotope measurements of the coral animal, Symbiodinium and community food web endmembers to supply source isotope signatures. CSIA and bulk-tissue analysis will be done for several coral species (roughly one per morphology type) across an environmental gradient and in parallel with “typical” coral monitoring measurements to uncover patterns between “typical” measurements and results from CSIA analysis across taxa and environmental gradients. Additionally, I plan to develop and disseminate this method for broad utilization by the National Science Foundation Long Term Ecological Research Network.
University of Haifa, Israel
Using models, experiments and field work to map metabolic interactions in synthetic and natural marine bacterial ecosystems
Microbial communities catalyze biogeochemical cycles across Earth’s compartments and perform crucial ecosystem functions impacting all forms of life. The power of communities to influence global-level processes derives from the collective action of individual species; therefore, to understand the effects of communities, we need to understand how bacteria interact within them. Predicting microbial community behavior based on the identity and relative abundance of species present is one of the outstanding challenges in microbial ecology, especially for highly complex, dynamic ecosystems. The overarching goal of this project is to systematically predict cross-feeding interactions between marine heterotrophic bacteria based on their genome sequences, testing these predictions in laboratory co-cultures and in the ocean. My current work in the Segrè lab is focused on using metabolic network reconstructions to bridge the gap between genomics and microbial community function. To this end, I use genome-scale computational models in concert with systematic laboratory experiments to predict the nutritional requirements and metabolites produced by a diverse set of heterotrophic marine bacteria, and whether these features can predict syntrophic relationships between different species. The goal of this LOREX project is to move beyond the laboratory, and test our ability to resolve metabolic interactions in natural marine microbial communities using a combination of field observations and bottle incubation experiments involving marine samples from the Eastern Mediterranean. Only through a “cross-scale” understanding that unites modeling approaches with oceanography might we be able to anticipate how microbial populations respond to changing environments and how they affect major biogeochemical processes in a rapidly evolving world.