Conveners:Angel Borja, AZTI-Tecnalia; Marine Research Division; Pasaia (Spain), email@example.com; Tundi Agardy, Marine Affairs Research and Education (MARE), firstname.lastname@example.org; Steven Degraer, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences; Marine Ecosystem Management Section, S.Degraer@MUMM.ac.be
In recent times, human pressures and subsequent impacts on marine ecosystems have increased dramatically. This is due to both traditional activities (e.g. fishing, resource extraction, pollutant discharges and maritime transport) and recent increasing use of marine resources (e.g. offshore aquaculture and marine renewable energy exploitation). Many countries have introduced new legislation to address these challenges (e.g. the US Marine Policy, Canada’s Oceans Act, and the E.U. Marine Strategy Framework Directive). These regulations seek to safeguard marine ecosystems, through an integrative ecosystem-based approach encompassing all ecosystem components in order to allow sustainable use of marine goods and services. Marine spatial planning is the best framework to consider present and future human activities and systematically plan and achieve better management of our oceans. The main objective of this session is to showcase approaches undertaken in different countries to implement such plans and to draw lessons for an improved marine spatial planning process ensuring a proper implementation of the ecosystem-based approach.
Conveners:Beth Turner, NOAA NOS National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, email@example.com; Dwight Trueblood, NOAA NOS Estuarine Reserves Division, firstname.lastname@example.org; Kalle Matso, University of New Hampshire, email@example.com; Felix Martinez, NOAA NOS National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, firstname.lastname@example.org
Many, if not most, aquatic science projects are done with the goal of informing management and policy to protect, conserve, and wisely use aquatic resources. However, the transfer of research results into policy and management decisions remains a challenge. Some projects use the “catapult” approach: packaging up all the results at the end of the project and flinging them across institutional barriers to the desired end users. Others try a “ferry” approach, publishing results as the project progresses and scheduling meetings periodically between the scientists and the end users, providing discrete times for exchange of information. Still others attempt a “bridge” that fosters a more dynamic and continuous exchange of results and information, actively seeking real-time feedback from end users. This session requests presentations that discuss how aquatic science results have (or have not) made it to policy and management end users. Presentations should focus on strategies and techniques that have been used to facilitate the use of research results rather than on minute details of the research itself. It is hoped that the presentations will be able to identify some lessons learned, best practices or guidelines for enhancing the transfer of research results into actionable information.
This session is designed to provide a venue for undergraduate and beginning graduate students to give their first platform presentations at an ASLO meeting. It is hosted by the ASLO Multicultural Program, but open to all students who have never presented in an oral session at ASLO. The session is moderated by students and conducted in such a way as to provide a friendly and encouraging atmosphere.
Hypoxia (< 2 mg O2 L-1) has been reported with increasing frequency from a variety of coastal and estuarine ecosystems. Hypoxia develops as a result of complex interactions of physical and biological processes, which often cannot be fully understood through observations alone. Numerical models are an important research tool that can be applied to understand the processes that determine the spatial and temporal variations in hypoxia. This session is devoted to diverse modeling approaches, including mechanisms controlling hypoxia development, anthropogenic and climatic influences on hypoxia, and the ecological effects of hypoxia on regional ecosystems. Studies may focus on processes or prediction of hypoxia, causes or effects of hypoxia, physics or fish. Applicable models range from purely empirical to complex three-dimensional models.
Hypersaline habitats have been common throughout Earth history, and indications are that climate change is contributing to the expansion of these habitats worldwide. Investigations of these habitats suggest they contain diverse microbial communities, and are hotspots of biogeochemical cycling that may yield novel taxa, associations, and biogeochemistry. We welcome contributions from studies of both benthic and planktonic realms as well as from freshwater and marine environments.
Conveners:Maeve C. Lohan, University of Plymouth, email@example.com; Sylvia G. Sander, University of Otago, firstname.lastname@example.org; Kristen N. Buck, Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences, email@example.com
The bioactive trace metals iron, copper, cobalt, nickel, zinc and cadmium are essential micronutrients for marine phytoplankton and exert a major influence on the global carbon cycle. Complexation of these metals by organic ligands may enhance or reduce bioavailability depending upon the metal-ligand complex formed. Yet we know little about the composition, sources and cycling of metal-binding ligands, which is hindering further advances in the field of trace metal biogeochemistry. An active SCOR Working Group (WG 139) ‘Organic Ligands- A Key Control on Trace Metal Cycling in the Ocean’ fosters the multidisciplinary collaboration of trace metal biogeochemists, organic geochemists and biogeochemical modelers in order to advance this field. This session is a community wide forum to highlight recent accomplishments in metal-binding ligand characterization and approaches for assessing ligand composition, sources and impacts on trace metal cycling in the aquatic environment, and to discuss future efforts in this field. We welcome abstracts related to metal- binding ligands from throughout the multidisciplinary field of oceanography.
Nitrogen is one of the most biologically important elements on earth and is often the nutrient limiting primary production in aquatic systems. While a great deal is known about the fate and functions of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in aquatic systems, relatively little is known about the sources, sinks, cycling or composition of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). This is surprising as DON often exceeds DIN concentrations, representing up to 85% of total dissolved nitrogen pool. DON was once believed to be primarily refractory due to its relatively high and stable concentrations. We now know that DON is a chemically complex mixture with fractions of the DON pool being extremely labile. The development of new analytical techniques has changed the way we think about DON, its functions in aquatic systems, and its roles in the global nitrogen cycle. The focus of this session is to highlight our current knowledge of the sources, sinks, cycling, and composition of DON across aquatic environments. We encourage entries from freshwater, brackish, marine, and atmospheric systems including chemical, biological and physical investigations to foster cross-disciplinary discussions. We specifically encourage studies using state-of-the-art analytical techniques to investigate DON production, cycling, composition, bioavailability and transport at all scales.
Conveners:Russell Cuhel, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Center for Great Lakes Studies, firstname.lastname@example.org; Carmen Aguilar, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Center for Great Lakes Studies, email@example.com
Increasingly complex, large-scale studies of aquatic ecosystems require broadly-trained yet disciplinarily-expert scientists for the 21st Century. A variety of laboratory research opportunities, from grant-supported undergraduate assistants to programmatic offerings such as the NSF-OCE Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Sites offer a valuable introduction to research activities and lifestyles. Distributed among a wide variety of aquatic research institutions, REU Sites in particular provide diverse project and informational experiences. This session specifically offers ANY undergraduates an opportunity to present their research findings in a collegial but lower-stress poster session amid the showcase of full-spectrum aquatic science presentations. Engaged in one of the premier aquatic science meetings of the year, networking and personal interaction facilitate recruitment of top candidates into the career path progression. Research experiences play very important roles in coalescence of a student's classroom learning with real world practice. This poster session showcases project results of mostly upper-division undergraduates working in aquatic science laboratories. All disciplines and many interdisciplinary topics are represented. The presentations provide a fine opportunity for scientists to establish interactions with potential graduate students or employees in a professional setting. The session has grown to be one of the largest single sessions, well attended by actively recruiting scientists.
Conveners:Claudia Dziallas, University of Copenhagen, firstname.lastname@example.org; Hans-Peter Grossart, Leibniz-Institute for Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, email@example.com; Kam W. Tang, Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences, firstname.lastname@example.org
During the history of life on our planet, acquisition of symbiont-encoded metabolic pathways has allowed organisms to exploit new ecological niches. A mechanistic understanding of the interactions between host and symbionts as well as the role of symbionts in functional diversification and speciation is, however, currently lacking. In addition, the importance of symbioses for niche occupation and matter cycling in aquatic systems is still under-appreciated. Aquatic organisms are densely colonized on their internal and external surfaces by a wide variety of microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, algae, and protozoans. With the exception of a few pathogens, knowledge about the ecology of these microbial symbionts is scarce, such as their life cycles, their establishment and maintenance in the hosts, their interactions with adjacent microbes, and evolution of the host-symbiont systems. Eukaryotic organisms present specific microhabitats with very different environmental conditions than the surrounding water, and they may therefore support the proliferation and activities of distinct microbial communities with important biogeochemical consequences. For instance, earlier research has suggested that the guts of zooplankton and fish may support anaerobic microbial processes that otherwise cannot occur in the oxygen-rich water columns. Furthermore, the alteration of the host´s niche can lead to different matter cycling rates and may change biodiversity of the respective ecosystem. We invite researchers to present and discuss all aspects of symbioses in aquatic ecosystems. The goal is to promote exchanges among experts from various fields in highlighting new findings on the molecular and functional ecology of microbial symbioses as well as new conceptual approaches for future studies of symbioses in all aquatic ecosystems. Presentations that link symbioses to water and disease managements or science education are also welcomed.
Ecological risk assessment, which includes an understanding of the potential for establishment, spread, and impact of nonindigenous species, provides a tool used by scientists and managers to respond to current invasions and predict future invasions. In this session, investigators utilize science, economics, and risk assessment to address ecological and/or economic impacts of current and future aquatic species invasions, quantify major uncertainties and ways to reduce uncertainty, and identify methodologies that relate to cost-effective management of nonindigenous species. We suggest that these integrative approaches to nonindigenous species risk assessment will further enhance our understanding of the ecology of species invasions, and improve methods of identifying and managing invasive species. Presentations and posters should address risk assessment and/or impacts of nonindigenous aquatic species. A wide variety of analyses and applications will be considered.
Conveners:Richard B. Rivkin, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada, email@example.com; Louis Legendre, Laboratoire d'Oceanographie de Villefranche, France, firstname.lastname@example.org; M. Robin Anderson, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Canada, email@example.com
Over 25 years ago, it was proposed that the biological carbon pump (BCP) transfers particulate organic carbon (POC) from surface waters into the deep ocean. Recently, it was suggested that in a parallel process, the microbial carbon pump (MCP) lengthens the residence time of carbon in the ocean through the production of refractory dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by heterotrophic prokaryotes. Both pumps lead to the sequestration of atmospheric CO2 in the ocean. Ongoing studies on responses of marine microbial communities to drivers that are both natural (e.g. atmospheric and ocean circulation, mixing) and anthropogenic (e.g. acidification, eutrophication, increased temperature) contribute to better understanding of the functioning of the two pumps. Microbes influence both the BCP (e.g. effects on community respiration or solubilisation of POC) and the MCP (e.g. effects on production of refractory DOC). This session invites marine microbiologists, biogeochemists, environmental scientists and modellers to report on empirical, synthetic and/or model studies that contribute to our understanding of the responses of the microbial community to the above drivers, and the consequences for carbon sequestration through the microbial and biological carbon pumps.
The vertical flux of particulate material in the oceans plays both direct and indirect roles in biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems of the ocean. Sinking particles redistribute carbon and other elements vertically in the ocean, supplying food to deep-sea organisms and contributing the ocean uptake of carbon from the atmosphere. Although recent studies have shed light on the fate of particulate material in both surface and mid-waters of the ocean, we still have a poor understanding of the drivers affecting changes to particulate material as it sinks, and models are still unable to accurately reproduce observations of particle flux. This session aims to bring together those interested in understanding particle flux in the ocean with an aim of synthesizing our current understanding and initiating discussions for future directions in this field. We invite submissions from field researchers and modelers to present in this session.
Since 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC) has been home to a global effort to improve management outcomes for massive deltaic coastal systems like that of the Mississippi River Delta by comparing the ecological, hydrological, geological, and biogeochemical processes of large deltaic systems across the globe. The Delta Research and Global Observation Network (DRAGON) is developing a science framework for comparing, integrating, and ultimately predicting the effects of key drivers and management practices in these large ecosystems. The DRAGON brings together scientists and managers to model the large river deltas around the world (http://deltas.usgs.gov). Forecast Mekong is part of the U.S. Department of State’s Lower Mekong Initiative, which was launched in 2008 by Secretary Clinton and the Foreign Ministers of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam to enhance U.S. engagement with the Lower Mekong countries in the areas of environment, health, education, and infrastructure. The USGS is using research and data from the Mekong River Delta in Southeast Asia to compare restoration, conservation, and management efforts there with those of the Mississippi River Delta in the USA. The project provides a forum to engage regional partners in the Mekong Basin countries to share data and support local research efforts. Ultimately, Forecast Mekong is intended to support more informed decisions about how to make the Mekong and Mississippi deltas resilient in the face of climate change, economic stresses, and other impacts.
Conveners:Karen Wishner, University of Rhode Island, firstname.lastname@example.org; Lisa Levin, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UCSD, email@example.com; Brad Seibel, University of Rhode Island, firstname.lastname@example.org
Oxygen minimum zones may be expanding in the world’s oceans in response to global climate change. These regions are also locations of high carbon dioxide, so animals may be affected by the multiple stressors of low oxygen and increasing acidification. For metazoans, physiological constraints, along with changes in ecological and environmental interactions, may result in changes in abundances, vertical distributions, migration patterns, and life history strategies. Potential community and ecosystem impacts include habitat compression affecting fisheries and benthos, alterations in biological pump processes and biogeochemical cycles, and changes in benthic-pelagic coupling. We seek presentations on these effects, focused on metazoans from zooplankton and meiofauna to top predators and megafauna. Contributions dealing with educating students and the public about potential human impacts and seeking solutions to public concerns are also welcome.
The patchy, microscale distribution of aquatic microbial communities is determined in large part by the presence of conglomerations of organic and inorganic particles suspended in the water column, i.e., lake, river, or marine “snow”. For decades and with a variety of techniques, these conglomerations have been shown to be small-scale patches of higher biomass and productivity compared to surrounding water. These hotspots of microbial processes harbor pathogens, facilitate quorum sensing and genetic exchanges, and physically focus biogeochemical processes, even anoxic ones. This special session will update the “aggregate community” about the cornucopia of topics generated by recent studies of marine snow and its freshwater analogs.
This session focuses upon current and developing understanding of sources, sinks, and chemistry of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and the power of CDOM as an interpretive prism through which the cycling of the greater DOM pool can be resolved. CDOM is increasingly recognized as a significant component of and useful tracer for dissolved organic matter (DOM). Thus, understanding the processes that govern the spatial and temporal distributions of different pools of CDOM and fluorescent DOM (FDOM) is of importance to a comprehensive understanding of global CDOM and DOM cycles. Consequently, the distributions, production, transport and fate of CDOM are being charted throughout the oceans. Terrestrial-sources and photochemical-sinks for CDOM have long been recognized. Yet, recent research highlights the production of bio-refractory, photo-labile CDOM in the deep ocean and that CDOM and FDOM can serve as tracers of labile and refractory DOC pools. Coupling of advanced analytical techniques, such as high resolution mass spectrometry, with CDOM and FDOM datasets is revealing the molecular character of DOM’s optical signatures. Presentations detailing ocean CDOM production, photochemistry and chemical composition are welcome.
Conveners:Ruben Sommaruga, University of Innsbruck, Institute of Ecology, Innsbruck, Austria, email@example.com; Tom Battin, University of Vienna, Department of Limnology, Vienna, Austria, firstname.lastname@example.org; Eran Hood, University of Alaska Southeast, Environmental Science Program, Juneau, USA, email@example.com
The rapid current retreat of glaciers constitutes one of the most prominent signs of climate change. Most glaciers are expected to significantly shrink within a generation, and many of the glaciers at low altitude could disappear in the next 20 years. In addition to the long-term loss of natural freshwater storage and their contribution to sea-level rise, the retreat of glaciers affects aquatic ecosystems in several ways, sometimes even in a catastrophic manner such as when glacial lake outburst floods occur. Glacial ecosystems are also increasingly understood as an hitherto poorly recognized player in the global carbon cycle. The accelerated deglaciation may thus have numerous and complex consequences for downstream aquatic ecosystems and for large-scale biogeochemistry. For instance, rapid glacial retreat is creating new lakes where topography is suitable and is changing the water transparency of turbid lakes. Furthermore it is altering the ecohydrology of glacier-fed streams and may even mobilize pollutants that can be transported to downstream ecosystems. This session invites presentations that contribute to understand the consequences of vanishing glaciers for the hydrology, biogeochemistry, biodiversity, and ecological function of glacier-fed streams, lakes, and near-shore marine ecosystems.
Conveners:Jutta Niggemann, Max Planck Research Group for Marine Geochemistry, firstname.lastname@example.org; Aron Stubbins, Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, email@example.com; Thorsten Dittmar, Max Planck Research Group for Marine Geochemistry, firstname.lastname@example.org
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is the main carbon and energy source for heterotrophic microorganisms in aquatic systems. The microbial community shapes DOM composition (and vice versa), leaving behind a characteristic molecular imprint in DOM. Abiotic environmental factors like solar irradiation, interactions with solids or hydrothermal heating cause substantial changes in the molecular DOM composition. Emerging analytical techniques provide molecular information on DOM composition and microbial communities in unsurpassed detail, allowing for a molecular-level understanding of biotic and abiotic processing of DOM. This session aims at bringing together different fields of DOM research. Integrative studies linking molecular DOM characteristics to microbiological and abiotic transformation are of particular interest.
Conveners:Max Yaremchuk, Naval Research Laboratory, email@example.com; Jeffrey Paduan, Naval Postgraduate School, firstname.lastname@example.org; Alexei Sentchev, Universite du Littoral, France, Alexei.Sentchev@univ-littoral.fr; Yves Barbin, Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, France, email@example.com
We invite presentations on the sea surface phenomena and Lagrangian tracking techniques in coastal environments based on remotely sensed observations of surface currents, modelling applications and data assimilation. This is a large topic of the applied oceanography in its own right, but it is also becoming clear that many larger-scale processes are essentially coupled with peculiarities of the coastal circulation, and those include local climate/weather, bioproductivity, marine pollution and many other issues related to the upper-ocean currents on regional scales. This is a rapidly developing area of the applied oceanographic research, and contributions based on the data analysis from the growing network of HF radar systems and regional modeling efforts are strongly encouraged.
The northern Gulf of Mexico continues to be besieged by both natural and man-made disasters. The environmental complexity of the northern Gulf of Mexico requires a “system- science” approach aimed at understanding the response of linked elements of coastal systems to multiple stressors and influences. An effective approach must develop information and understanding that addresses the regional scope of coastal change over multiple (oceanographic, ecologic, and geologic) time-scales. This session is broadly focused on how natural and anthropogenic processes (e.g., sea-level rise, storm events, climate, and land-use/land-change) have shaped the sedimentary record and geomorphic landscape of coastal regions along northern Gulf of Mexico over the last century or more.
Conveners:William M. Balch, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, firstname.lastname@example.org; Nicholas R. Bates, Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences, email@example.com; Phoebe J. Lam, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, firstname.lastname@example.org; Benjamin S. Twining, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, email@example.com
This session welcomes contributions related to the distribution, ecology, physiology, and biogeochemical impacts of coccolithophores in the modern and future ocean as they experience climate change and ocean acidification. The session will focus on interactions between coccolithophores and pCO2, alkalinity, shallow/deep export (carbonate ballasting), marine optics, trace metal and nutrient chemistry. We envision contributions from laboratory, field, and modeling studies, bringing together biological, chemical, biogeochemical and physical approaches.
Conveners:Alexander S. Kolker, Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, firstname.lastname@example.org; Mead A. Allison, University of Texas Institute of Geophysics, University of Texas, email@example.com; Karen H. Johannesson, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Tulane University, firstname.lastname@example.org
The complex land-ocean interface of large rivers, which includes fluvial channels, estuaries, deltaic wetlands, and the adjacent continental shelf, has a significant control on the global flux of water, sediments, organic matter, and dissolved ions to the oceans. Relative to smaller systems, their size, long life-span, and geomorphological complexity can engender unique surface and subsurface transport across the land-ocean interface, many of these exchange processes remain poorly studied. Closing these knowledge gaps for both surface fluxes and submarine groundwater discharge is critical to the development of accurate geochemical, hydrological and sediment budgets. Furthermore, these knowledge gaps have important societal implications, as large river-dominated coastal systems have large populations, are home to critical infrastructure, provide valuable ecosystem services, and are threatened by changes in land use, patterns of water utilization, climate and relative sea level. This session will explore land-ocean exchange processes in large rivers and their societal implications. Presentations that build cross-disciplinary connections from both theoretical and empirical perspectives are particularly encouraged.
Despite the global importance of the aquatic environment, it remains temporally and spatially under sampled. Traditionally water samples have been collected and processed in a laboratory. These methods are unable to provide the temporal and spatial resolution that is required to understand the chemical and biological processes taking place within the oceans. They can also be subject to chemical changes, may not reflect the ambient conditions at the time of sample collection and can suffer from contamination due to handling techniques. In situ methods minimise these problems and can provide a much greater sampling rate and distribution. Aquatic sensors use a range of techniques from optical techniques (e.g. optical fibers, hyperspectral imaging, planar optodes, Raman spectroscopy) to wet chemical, electrochemical, eddy correlation and biosensor techniques. Measurements include nutrients, trace metals, carbonate, pCO2, pH, oxygen, sulphide species and pollutants. In addition, challenges common to all sensor development such as their integration onto multiple platforms and instruments (observatories, autonomous underwater vehicles, remotely operated vehicles) and biofouling must be addressed. This session will present some of the latest developments in this important field combining technology, engineering, chemistry, biology and physics.
This session will focus on the challenges and opportunities of teaching introductory oceanography at both 2-and 4-year colleges to a diversity of students. We look for submissions that focus on effective ways to increase student learning of oceanographic concepts, ways in which student learning is assessed, examples of how real-time data is included in the classroom, the challenges and novel approaches for teaching oceanography at the introductory undergraduate level.
Conveners:John Lehrter, EPA Gulf Ecology Division, email@example.com; Katja Fennel, Dalhousie University, firstname.lastname@example.org; Wally Fulweiler, Boston University, email@example.com; Roxane Maranger, University of Montreal, firstname.lastname@example.org
Human impacts to aquatic ecosystems often manifest at the sediment-water interface. Local and regional scale issues such as eutrophication, sedimentation and resuspension of inorganic and organic particles, toxic pollution, and over-fishing can have dramatic effects on benthic biological communities (ranging from microbial organisms to mega fauna) and induce feedbacks to the water column by altering biogeochemical processes. Recently, there is increasing awareness of compounding effects by global scale phenomena such as rising sea surface temperatures and ocean acidification. However, despite advancements in the theory, observation, and modeling of communities and biogeochemical processes at the sediment-water interface that have occurred over the last several decades, many regulating mechanisms are still poorly characterized. Hence, our ability to accurately predict and mitigate the impacts of human activities is hindered. This session invites investigators to present and discuss recent observational or modeling studies that add to our understanding of processes at the sediment-water interface. Presentations that integrate or synthesize across multiple spatial and temporal scales or levels of functional organization, genes to ecosystems, are encouraged. Non-research presentations that provide environmental policy perspectives and challenges, which may inform knowledge gaps and research needs, are also encouraged.
The interstitial spaces inside sea ice constitute a vast habitat for both microorganism and animal life. Sea ice primary production exceeds that of the water column in early spring, therefore extending the duration of the productive season in ice-covered seas and providing an important resource for consumers. Melting sea ice releases immured sea ice organisms into the open water, seeding ice edge blooms and constituting a source of particulate as well as dissolved organic carbon. In a warming Arctic Ocean, the sea ice communities and associated carbon fluxes will likely be affected by later sea ice formation, earlier melt and varying snow cover. In this session we invite studies which report on the biology and biogeochemistry of sea ice biota and its role in the polar biogeochemistry and ecology, as well as its susceptibility to climate change.
Conveners:Lasse Riemann, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, email@example.com; Jonathan P. Zehr, University of California, USA, firstname.lastname@example.org; Julie LaRoche, Dalhousie University, Canada, email@example.com
Nitrogen cycling in marine waters is largely mediated by microbes. Bacteria or Archaea transform organic and inorganic nitrogen into bioavailable nutrients supporting productivity at local and global scales. Despite being essential for carbon biogeochemistry, many aspects of the marine nitrogen cycle remain poorly constrained and understood. Magnitudes of sources and sinks of nitrogen have been intensively debated throughout the last decade without reaching consensus. Recent discoveries of new organisms and pathways relevant for the oceanic nitrogen cycle along with developments of new applications of tracer techniques, molecular biology, and ‘omics’ have provided important new insights. In future endeavors to understand the marine nitrogen cycle it will be essential to examine the diversity and composition of microbial assemblages responsible for nitrogen transformations and, in particular, identify rates of activity for key microbes. In turn, this will promote the identification of environmental drivers important for the cycling of nitrogen, and facilitate establishment of couplings between key organisms, functional genes, and process rates. The session goal is to promote exchange among researchers from various fields to integrate data on biogeochemistry and process rates with the molecular ecology of microbes to facilitate understanding, modeling, and ultimately, prediction of nitrogen transformations in the sea.
Conveners:John R. Helms, University of North Carolina Wilmington, firstname.lastname@example.org; Stephen Skrabal, University of North Carolina Wilmington, email@example.com; G. Brooks Avery, University of North Carolina Wilmington, firstname.lastname@example.org; Ralph Mead, University of North Carolina Wilmington, email@example.com
Sediment-water interactions during resuspension events can significantly impact a number of biogeochemical processes such as trace metal mobilization, nutrient and organic matter cycling, and release of anthropogenic contaminants. We invite papers on any biogeochemical aspect of sediment resuspension in coastal marine and aquatic environments. In particular we encourage contributions on how these processes might be influenced by global climate change (e.g. rising sea level) and land use changes.
Conveners:Carola Wagner, Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemuende, firstname.lastname@example.org; Karin Junker, Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemuende, email@example.com
Extreme climate and weather events are likely to occur more frequently and with a greater magnitude in the future, shifting ecosystems to the edge of their resilience and beyond. Due to their destructive capacity, severe alterations in ecosystem structure and functioning are expected to have dire consequences for ecosystem services. Whether and how climate extremes push ecosystems to a new state depends on the frequency, intensity and duration of those events, as well as the adaptive capacity of the respective systems. The increase in extreme climate events and their impacts on ecosystems is imposing further challenges to ecosystem management by altering the predictability of the systems. We invite presentations that focus on the impacts of climate and weather extremes on aquatic ecosystems and their predictability by applying long-term data analysis, experimental studies, statistical as well as deterministic models. In addition, we encourage contributions from the stakeholder’s perspective that aim at identifying the scientific information required to sustain ecosystem goods and services, thus linking research and management.
Emerging contaminants such as pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, natural plant products, and pesticides have been documented to be present at low levels in many aquatic environments worldwide. This session will involve presentations that describe the variation in the presence and distribution of these chemicals in the aquatic environment, and the impact different emerging contaminants may have on aquatic organisms, communities and ecosystems.
The Gulf of Mexico and Alaskan Arctic are currently the OCS areas of greatest oil and gas (O&G) development interest. Each area presents policy and scientific challenges, which has created the need for policies and scientific information to support continued deep water leasing, while providing adequate assurances of safety and environmental protection. Specific issues of concern in the Gulf of Mexico relate to spill response and containment capabilities in deep water, as well as the resilience of the Gulf ecosystem to perturbations from additional oil spills. Arctic concerns relate to the potential effects of OCS development on subsistence uses and ecosystem resources, and their potential interaction with ongoing climate change in the Arctic. This session will provide an overview of the current federal regulatory frameworks for OCS O&G development, a description of existing environmental protections, and an overview of risks to ecosystems associated with O&G development. We encourage submissions that discuss regulatory or scientific aspects of O&G development on the OCS. In particular, we seek submissions pertaining to the interaction between climate change and O&G development, oil spill cleanup in extreme environments, long-term monitoring of ecological impacts from O&G developments, and examples of how basic research on the OCS have allowed the effective integration of science and environmental protection.
Conveners:Amanda W.J. Demopoulos, Ph.D., US Geological Survey, Southeast Ecological Science Center, firstname.lastname@example.org; Erik E. Cordes, Ph.D., Temple University, email@example.com; Helen K. White, Ph.D., Haverford College, firstname.lastname@example.org
The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill brought renewed attention to the diverse and complex communities of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). In light of the documented impacts of the spill, recent focus has shifted towards restoration. The science of restoration in the GoM varies considerably according to habitat; for example, nearshore salt marshes require a different approach compared to offshore waters and the deep-sea. In addition, restoration may include rebuilding some habitats as well as preserving others from future disturbances. Given that the DWH oil spill was implicated in detrimental impacts to a wide variety of GoM habitats, and that we are still learning the extent of these impacts, the time is right to conduct and gather the relevant research needed to develop effective restoration plans. This session will target NGOs, government and academic researchers, and resource managers involved in using the latest scientific research and theory to design marine protected areas and reserves. Discussions will include identifying the challenges and obstacles associated with restoration in the nearshore, offshore and deep-sea. Basic questions addressed by this session will include: What does restoration mean in the various impacted habitats? What ongoing research can inform these efforts? Who are the stakeholders? What have we learned from restoration activities to date? What are the long-term goals for restoration activities?
Effective ecosystem management requires a clear understanding of ecosystem organization, function, and response to stressors, including those caused by human activities. This session will include research that uses comparisons across marine ecosystems to provide fundamental understanding of marine ecosystem structure, function and dynamics—with particular emphasis on climate and fishing as agents of change—to foster enhanced prediction and support for ecosystem-based management. We anticipate presentations will cover fundamental research to understand complex dynamics controlling ecosystem structure, productivity, behavior, resilience, and population connectivity, as well as effects of climate variability and anthropogenic pressures on living marine resources and critical habitats. By drawing ecosystem-scale comparisons across environmental gradients and management regimes, we increase our understanding of the underlying principles that organize marine ecosystems and the roles of human actions therein. Additionally, predicting marine ecosystem responses to change is essential to developing ecosystem-based management strategies that will ensure the sustainability of marine resources and the livelihoods of those who depend on them.
Conveners:James Ammerman, New York Sea Grant, Stony Brook University, email@example.com; Christopher Gobler, Stony Brook University, Southampton, firstname.lastname@example.org; Cornelia Schlenk, New York Sea Grant, Stony Brook University, email@example.com
More than 23 million people live within 50 miles of the 600 mile coastline of Long Island Sound, and its value to the local economy is estimated at $9 billion per year. Though the subject of research and restoration efforts for many years, 2012 marks the publication of a major synthesis volume on the science and management of Long Island Sound, largely through the efforts of the Long Island Sound Study (the EPA National Estuary Program) and affiliated university and government researchers. This session will address recent major research findings, their management implications, and outreach efforts to bring this information to the public. Presentations comparing Long Island Sound with other urban estuaries are also invited.
More than two decades ago, researchers noted the expansion of harmful algal blooms (HABs) across the globe. Since that time, the frequency, intensity, diversity, and impacts of HABs in both freshwater and marine ecosystems have all continued to increase. Concurrently, our ability to assess the molecular and biochemical status of HABs and co-occurring microbes has improved significantly as has our ability to detect HABs and their toxins. This session seeks to bring together researchers of HABs in multiple ecosystems (e.g. estuaries, lakes, coastal ocean) that use a diversity of approaches (molecular, experimental, field, laboratory) to assess the sundry biological, chemical, and physical factors that facilitate the onset and demise of HAB events. Studies including, but not limited to, assessments of regulators of algal growth such as nutrients, carbon dioxide, temperature, light, and cyst emergence, as well as morality processes such as zooplankton grazing, viral lysis, allelopathy, grazing by bivalves, and physical dispersion are welcome. Investigations that consider both harmful algae and co-occurring phytoplankton and/or microbes are also encouraged.
Catchments from the Arctic to the Tropics are readily defined ecological units linking land to the ocean, and as such represent a logical spatial scale for monitoring and studying organic matter (OM) processing. The geochemical composition of rivers draining watersheds represents an integrated signal of all processes occurring within the catchment, and therefore is impacted by climate and land-use change, as well as seasonal cycles that are frequently missed due to snapshot sampling. We solicit contributions that consider molecular to watershed scale processes with respect to understanding OM dynamics. Research utilizing biomarkers, natural abundance and radiocarbon isotopes (including compound specific), spectrophotometric techniques (e.g. absorbance, fluorescence), advanced mass spectrometry (e.g. FT-ICR MS), NMR and other characterization and isolation techniques to understand OM dynamics and reactivity (e.g. photo and biolability) are encouraged. Studies utilizing these analyses to examine OM processing and how it is changing in river basins due to land use (e.g. deforestation, urbanization) and climate change (e.g. permafrost thaw, rainforest to savanna), as well as time series studies are especially encouraged to contribute to the session. We also solicit studies bringing together a broad range of geochemical techniques to further our understanding of OM at the land-ocean interface.
The future of coastal communities will depend on informed use of fresh and saltwater resources. Groundwater discharge is distinct from other coastal freshwater inputs due to its diffuse nature and in the quantity and composition of nutrients it delivers. Although the detection and quantification of coastal groundwater inputs has advanced considerably, understanding of its ecological role for microbial communities and coastal food webs has not. Groundwater-derived inputs of nutrients and organic matter are mediated by microbial communities in aquifers and sediments and play an important but under- recognized role in coastal water quality. The subsequent effect of groundwater inputs on the ecology of benthic and pelagic microbes such as phytoplankton is also poorly understood, even though it has been linked to phenomena such as harmful algal blooms (HABs). This session will address how within-aquifer microbial processes control the flux of groundwater-derived materials to coastal water bodies as well as the consequences of this flux for microbial and phytoplankton communities. Studies that integrate physical and chemical measurements of groundwater with biological processes are especially encouraged. Groundwater is often out of sight and out of mind, so studies that bring related issues into the public sphere or policy discussions are also encouraged.
Conveners:Andreas Brand, Eawag, Surface Water Group, firstname.lastname@example.org; Joerg Lewandowski, IGB Berlin -Ecohydrology group, email@example.com; Gunnar Nuetzmann, IGB Berlin -Ecohydrology group, firstname.lastname@example.org; Christof Meile, Department of Marine Sciences, University of Georgia; email@example.com
Porewater advection is critical for the understanding of early diagenesis in many aquatic settings. Some of these processes such as wave-induced porewater advection and the pumping activity of animals such as Arenicola marina have been closely investigated in marine environments. In addition, recent studies suggest that porewater advection is also a key process in limnic sediments. For example, tube dwelling fauna can induce porewater advection in the sediment surrounding their burrows due to their pumping activity, and porewater advection can become the dominant transport mechanism in sediments close to the thermocline in lakes with intense seiche activity. Furthermore, groundwater discharge can be the dominant transport mechanism in the open water – sediment – groundwater discharge transition zone. Since sediments are typically highly reactive, the turnover rates of organic carbon, nutrients, oxygen and other electron acceptors are tightly coupled to the transport processes which govern the supply of chemical compounds. In this session we aim to discuss novel approaches ranging from experimental investigations in the laboratory and in situ at various scales to numerical studies which investigate the impact of advection on biogeochemistry.
Conveners:Jennifer J Mosher, Stroud Water Research Center, firstname.lastname@example.org; Richard Devereux, US Environmental Protection Agency, Devereux.Richard@epamail.epa.gov; Anthony V Palumbo, Oak Ridge National Lab, email@example.com
Aquatic ecosystems are globally connected by hydrological and biogeochemical cycles. Microorganisms inhabiting aquatic ecosystems form the basis of food webs, mediate essential element cycles, decompose natural organic matter, transform inorganic nutrients and metals, and degrade anthropogenic pollutants. The geochemical milieu determines the availability of resources that can be physiologically exploited by microorganisms. It is these interactions between the microorganisms and their resources that most likely contribute to metabolic diversity and determine whether one aquatic ecosystem is a source or sink for organic or inorganic materials with another. Understanding linkages among aquatic microorganisms, geochemical cycling, and hydrological transport is a vital step for managing anthropogenic inputs to aquatic environments and developing sustainable solutions for ecosystem protection. The goal of this session is to explore these linkages through presentations that include ecophysiological capacities of microbial communities in the transformation of matter through hydrologically connected ecosystems from streams and rivers to lakes or coastal zones and oceans. Research and policy focused contributions addressing these interactions in aquatic ecosystems are welcome.
Conveners:David T. Elliott, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Sciences, Horn Point Lab, firstname.lastname@example.org; Amy E. Maas, Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, email@example.com
As anthropogenic influences on aquatic environments increase, there is considerable scientific and practical interest in understanding how a system’s biological components will respond to both single and multiple stressors (chemical pollution, hypoxia, ocean acidification, toxic and harmful algal blooms, changing temperatures, etc.). The response of zooplankton to environmental conditions is of particular interest due to the central and mediating role that this group occupies as a trophic link between planktonic primary producers and larger consumers. Consequently, the response of zooplankton to stress has implications for a breadth of research fields including biogeochemical cycling, trophodynamics, fisheries and other ecosystems services. A goal of the session is to facilitate communication across geographic boundaries in zooplankton research, to identify gaps in our technological needs and to provide a venue for discussion of the responses of zooplankton to the multiple potential stressors associated with environmental change. We encourage submissions that build a mechanistic foundation for describing responses of zooplankton to stressors at the level of the individual, as well as those that utilize such a foundation to scale up to the population, community, and ecosystem levels.
Conveners:Stephane Blain, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, firstname.lastname@example.org; Queguiner, Universite d'Aix-Marseille, email@example.com; Strass, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Volker.firstname.lastname@example.org; Dieter Wolf-Gladrow, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Dieter.Wolf-Gladrow@awi.de
In the macronutrient-rich waters of the Southern Ocean, the biological pump of CO2 is likely controlled by the supply and bioavailability of iron. Through diverse interactions, iron limitation causes co-limitations principally by the light regime or by silicon. These processes are themselves modulated by the biological couplings in the food webs, and iron availability drives the functional structure and the biodiversity within the Southern Ocean ecosystems. Iron impacts the coupling between the different biogeochemical cycles with feedbacks on climate or on the productivity of adjacent ocean basins, possibly affecting the global carbon cycle. Resolving this complex multi-faceted story requires a large international effort which is underway. This session aims to bring together the most recent findings on the following issues: the impact of iron supply on carbon sequestration and atmospheric CO2 drawdown, the interaction between iron availability and the structure, biodiversity, and functioning of pelagic ecosystems, the identification of iron sources and transport pathways, the transformations of iron mediated by biotic or abiotic processes, and the coupling/decoupling between iron and major nutrient biogeochemical cycles. We invite submissions addressing any of these topics, either obtained from the most recent field studies (such as KEOPS2, or Eddy Pump), modeling studies or re-analysis of relevant previous observations.
Conveners:James Hollibaugh, University of Georgia, Dept. Marine Sciences, email@example.com; Jennifer Bowen, University of Massachusetts at Boston, Dept. Biology, firstname.lastname@example.org; Chris Francis, Stanford University, Dept. Environmental Earth System Science, email@example.com; Bradley Tolar, University of Georgia, Dept. Microbiology, firstname.lastname@example.org
Ammonia oxidation is a key process in the global biogeochemistry of nitrogen and a critical step in the conversion of fixed nitrogen to dinitrogen gas. Ammonia oxidation coupled to denitrification helps eliminate excess fixed nitrogen from coastal waters, alleviating eutrophication caused in part by excess loading of anthropogenic nitrogen. Both processes contribute to the flux of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas. This session will bring together scientists studying nitrogen dynamics, particularly ammonia oxidation and denitrification, focusing on populations of ammonia-oxidizing Bacteria and Archaea and denitrifiers in coastal waters and sediments, including estuaries, continental shelves, and coral reefs. Presenters are asked to address one or more of the following questions: What is the temporal variation in populations of ammonia oxidizers and denitrifiers? How does their activity, as a population and on a per cell basis, vary seasonally? What is their contribution to nitrogen dynamics, including production of nitrous oxide? What factors in their ecophysiology contribute to niche differentiation? What progress have we made on including more explicit formalizations of the process of ammonia oxidation and denitrification in models of nutrient cycling in coastal environments?
Conveners:Bob Chen, University of Massachusetts Boston , email@example.com; Joe Needoba, Oregon Health and Science University, firstname.lastname@example.org; Brian Bergamaschi, USGS, email@example.com; Janice McDonnell, Rutgers University, firstname.lastname@example.org
High variability in watershed, river, and coastal ocean properties over short time scales and small spatial scales requires continuous and fine-scale observational capabilities to understand processes and evaluate long-term trends. Recent advances in sensors, sensor networks, data visualization, modeling, and prediction have greatly increased our awareness, understanding, and use of such data. This session invites papers that demonstrate the application of sensors and sensor networks in aquatic systems as well as papers using this data for education and outreach.
Conveners:Jennifer Cherrier, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, Jennifer.email@example.com; Bob Chen, University of Massachusetts Boston, firstname.lastname@example.org; Jaye Cable, University of North Carolina, email@example.com; Christof Meile, University of Georgia, firstname.lastname@example.org
Carbon fluxes at the land-ocean interface are significant, variable, and changing over time. Nearshore coastal regions are both highly productive and highly reactive regions that play a critical role in the global carbon cycle. Tides, seasons, and episodic events all have a large impact on the variability of organic and inorganic carbon fluxes between the land, ocean, and atmosphere in coastal regions. In addition, land use changes, climate change, and direct anthropogenic inputs are all altering carbon fluxes over time in these critical areas. This session invites papers exploring the measurement, modeling, or prediction of carbon fluxes in coastal areas as well as papers describing education and outreach efforts regarding carbon fluxes in coastal zones.
Quantifying carbon fluxes in freshwater aquatic ecosystems provides insights into basin wide ecological and geochemical processes, and is critical to understanding past, present, and projected changes throughout the basin. Inland aquatic systems process carbon rapidly and need to be considered in order to accurately estimate net ecosystem production on large scales. Development of aquatic carbon flux estimates at large spatial scales (catchment, regional and global) is an area of active research in the aquatic biogeochemical community. Greater knowledge of the processes driving carbon fluxes as well as spatial and temporal variability in these estimates has been gained. This session will focus on large-scale carbon flux estimates in inland and coastal aquatic ecosystems. We encourage contributions focusing on carbon in any form (inorganic, organic, dissolved, particulate, gaseous) and which cover spatial scales ranging from catchments to continental scale and beyond.
The international GEOTRACES program is a multi-nation and multi-year effort to determine the concentration and speciation of trace elements and select isotopes in the world’s major ocean basins and some marginal seas at high vertical and horizontal resolution, reminiscent of the GEOSECS program. This program’s goal is “to improve the understanding of biogeochemical cycles and large-scale distribution of trace elements and their isotopes in the marine environment.” ( www.geotraces.org). To date, 35 “GEOTRACES compliant” section and process cruises have been completed and many more are planned. For this session, we invite investigators to share their findings from any GEOTRACES cruise including those related to dissolved and particulate trace elements, isotopes, nutrients and dissolved gases as well as atmospheric analyses. We also welcome presentations describing intercalibration, data management and modeling efforts related to GEOTRACES process and section studies.
Conveners:Uta Passow, Marine Science Institute, University of California Santa Barbara, email@example.com; Adrian Burd, Department of Marine Sciences, University of Georgia, firstname.lastname@example.org; Deborah Steinberg, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, email@example.com
Spatial and temporal variations in export particle flux from the surface ocean depend in part on the variability of the surface food web structure which varies geographically. Remineralization of particles below the surface layer depends largely on the food web structure underlying the surface waters. This session aims to present research related to geographical variability in surface and deep water food web structure and how it controls variability in particle flux and remineralization. This session will be of interest to biogeochemists, surface and deep water ecologists, phytoplankton specialists, ecosystem or biochemical modelers and those interested in zooplankton and higher trophic levels in both the surface and deep ocean, who strive for a mechanistic understanding of processes driving particle flux.
It is well established that atmospheric depositions of aerosols (such as black carbon) and dust are major local and global climate forcing factors. Also, recent research indicates that atmospheric deposition influences the diversity of microorganisms and microbe-mediated ecosystem functioning in the ocean. However, its influence on the (micro)biota is still poorly studied. This session brings together researchers from different scientific fields such as marine biology and biological oceanography, population and community ecology, diversity research and trophic ecology, and biogeochemistry. The aim is to summarize the research on the effect of atmospheric deposition on the microbiota, compare the effect of various factors such as black carbon and desert dust (and others), evaluate recent developments and potentially come up with a common position paper on global change, atmospheric deposition and the marine microbial life written by interested participants.
Many aquatic species can be classified as ecosystem engineers, i.e. they modify the environment either by creating biotic structures or by changing its physical dynamics. Some plants and animals have a major influence on near-bed hydrodynamics and thereby on sedimentation and erosion. These interactions between water, sediment and biota have consequences for the near-shore and coastal landscape and for the dynamics of fine sediment in the water column and the bed. Research into these interactions requires close cooperation between scientists from different disciplines. Meanwhile, there is growing interest from both ecosystem managers and from conservation organizations in using biogeomorphological processes to provide coastal protection, while simultaneously improving the natural status of coastal areas. Combining ecosystem functions such as sediment accretion (improving protection) and habitat formation (improving nature) can provide adaptable solutions for coastal areas, especially as most ecosystem engineering approaches will naturally adjust to sea-level rise and are resilient to storm damage. Simultaneously, adopting such solutions requires a certain mindset and awareness of coastal communities to accept “soft” coastal defenses. This session invites presentations dealing both with the underlying biogeomorphological processes as well as with the application of ecosystem engineering species in coastal protection.
Increasing atmospheric CO2 is leading to higher global temperatures and acidification of the surface ocean, and there is speculation that these changes may affect the initiation, frequency and severity of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). For example, long term shifts in terrestrial runoff and coastal water conditions may be more conducive to high biomass and hypoxia related HAB events, while greater stratification and ocean acidification might increase the relative proportions of toxic and fish-killing HAB species within phytoplankton communities. Even so, the purported relationships between climate change and HABs are founded on limited and often conflicting experimental data. We invite papers that focus on emerging toxic and ecosystem disruptive HAB events as well as changing plankton assemblages that are evolving towards more frequent or intense HAB incidents. We particularly invite papers addressing long-term time series data, land use changes, effects of macro- or micro-nutrient stress on cell physiology, trophic interactions, and the impacts of changing riverine runoff, ocean development (e.g., aquaculture, wind turbines), and ocean acidification. The goal of the session is to formulate a better understanding of factors enhancing the success of HAB species in the context of climate change.
Conveners:Stephanie Hampton, National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, UC-Santa Barbara, firstname.lastname@example.org; Paul Hanson, Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin, email@example.com; Emily Stanley, Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin, firstname.lastname@example.org
Long-term limnological data sets are increasingly valued for the unique perspective they provide on the complex dynamics of organisms and ecosystems, particularly as they respond to both anthropogenic perturbations and climate phenomena. Recent studies provide powerful examples of the role of multi-decadal data sets in elucidating major ecological processes in lakes, from documenting surprising patterns of ecosystem response to shifting climate, to unraveling complex underlying mechanisms. Typically, these high-value long-term studies are based on lakes that have long histories of limnological research. However, long-term limnological data collection is far more extensive than is suggested by either the current state of the literature or the current availability of long-term limnological data in public repositories. Many government and citizen-based programs have produced a wealth of lake data that have received limited attention in both research and management arenas, and most long-term lake studies result from independent efforts without coordinated data sharing. In this session, we hope to emphasize the need for community effort to develop, share, and safe-guard these long-term data sets by highlighting examples of their use in revealing patterns of multi-scale temporal change in lakes, informing management decisions, and engaging the public in the science and stewardship of lakes.
Methods for identifying and sequentially tracking discrete water parcels and entrained plankton populations have advanced to the point where it is feasible to conduct quasi-Lagrangian studies of plankton populations even in some dynamic coastal and oceanic environments. This session invites contributions that utilize different approaches to tracking water parcels and following planktonic organisms, with an emphasis on the resulting rate processes and population dynamic parameters that can be inferred in situ. Contributions are encouraged that address tracers and in situ perturbation experiments, drifting mesocosms, in situ drift arrays, modeling studies, and other quasi-Lagrangian approaches that help resolve planktonic distributions and vital rates.
Our oceans are experiencing change. Elevated greenhouse gasses, resulting in ocean acidification and elevated global temperatures, as well as increasing local impacts, are real and pervasive threats. The biotic response to this change is of concern. For instance, the existence of more than two thirds of coral reefs is jeopardized by anthropogenic activities. However, marine ecosystems are not equally affected around the globe, and physiological conditions are different. While climate change modeling suggests an increase of tropical ocean temperature by 1-3°C by 2099, The Red Sea and the Persian/Arabian Gulf already exist in an environmental extreme, and organisms thrive despite high temperatures and high salinity. Hence, the Arabian Seas form a perfect laboratory to study and understand the impact of climate change on ecosystems as it allows us to look into mechanisms of adaptation that were acquired over the past million years. We invite papers that discuss and compile recent studies and findings in marine research from the seas surrounding the Arabian Peninsula. This session is intended to provide a common ground for establishing interdisciplinary connections and developing a synopsis on the physical, chemical, and biological uniqueness of the region for predicting future climate impacts in marine systems.
Conveners:Tom Shatwell, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB), email@example.com; Bertram Boehrer, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, firstname.lastname@example.org; Klaus Jöhnk, CSIRO Land and Water, Klaus.Joehnk@csiro.au
Poorly mixed lakes are characterized by vertical gradients in physical and chemical parameters like temperature, salinity, density, light, nutrients, oxygen, redox potential, or ionic composition. Biological gradients, like the distribution of plankton and fish, also form as a result. Strong gradients such as the thermocline in holomictic lakes or the chemocline in meromictic lakes can be hotspots of matter conversion, impose barriers to the movement of organisms, particles and dissolved substances, or establish ecological niches. The metalimnion and other internal transition zones are thus highly active regions but also semi-permeable barriers. While limnologists often reduce poorly mixed lakes into two or three separate layers of interest (e.g., surface water, deep water, and sediment), little attention is paid to such interfaces and transition zones. This session will therefore focus on the role of the metalimnion and other internal transition zones in the structure and function of the whole lake system. We invite contributions covering all aspects of physical, chemical and biological processes, where the emphasis lies on the interactions between processes or their effects and feedbacks on the wider lake ecosystem. Examples of interesting questions include: What role does a deep chlorophyll layer play in nutrient cycling and food web dynamics? What are the effects of internal waves on biological and chemical processes? How does a metalimnion or chemical transition zone mediate the transformation and vertical flow of matter and energy? Does a chemocline in a meromictic lake act solely as a trap? Just how big is the sampling error when mixed samples are only drawn from the epilimnion? We hope to achieve an improved understanding of how processes across internal boundaries like the metalimnion influence lakes as a whole, generate new research themes, and highlight new advances towards lake and reservoir management.
Conveners:Rebecca J. Allee, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Gulf Coast Services Center, email@example.com; Emily Shumchenia, Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island,firstname.lastname@example.org
We invite oral and poster presentations that describe research, management, or regulatory activities that have utilized or plan to utilize NOAA’s Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS). There is an increasing demand for marine environmental characterizations to support ecosystem-based management, marine spatial planning activities, monitoring/assessment studies, and basic scientific research. CMECS offers a standard terminology for biotic and abiotic marine ecosystem components and an ecological framework by which to describe and study linkages in marine systems. Presentation topics of particular interest include those that address the strengths and weaknesses of this standard and how it may be best applied in practice, links to other classification systems, applications to specific management or regulatory activities, species-environment relationships (including humans and human use), marine habitat mapping/modeling, marine protected areas, habitat assessments, the biotope concept and characterization of biotopes. We aim to attract an interdisciplinary group of presenters from fields including marine ecology/biology, marine geology, oceanography, marine management/policy, and representatives from federal/state regulatory agencies.
Conveners:Alan D. Christian, University of Massachusetts Boston, email@example.com; Robyn E. Hannigan, University of Massachusetts Boston, firstname.lastname@example.org; Alonso Ramirez, University of Puerto Rico-Rio Piedras, email@example.com; Alex Eisen-Cuadra, University of Massachusetts Boston, firstname.lastname@example.org; Helenmary Hotz, University of Massachusetts Boston, Helenmary.Hotz@umb.edu
Global change can be defined as planetary scale changes of the Earth’s system that includes large-scale changes in human society. Societies need to respond to these changes through the use of science and policy. Furthermore, global change is likely to have impact on national security as these changes influence the distribution and abundance of resources. This session will focus on the effects of global change on stream and lake watersheds in the Caribbean and other climate-sensitive regions in terms of science and food and resource security, and how policy (including education/outreach) are being developed in response to global change.
Advances in situ electronic sensors have made sampling aggregates and animals in the ocean with optical instruments feasible. The more difficult tasks include interpreting the observations and using them to understand the ocean. Although all optical instruments use light, they use it in different ways that yield different results. All use absorption. Some also image. Examples are the LOPC, UVP, VPR, ISIIS, and SIPPER; others exist. We invite people using various instruments to come together to compare techniques and observations.
Conveners:Ken O. Buesseler, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, email@example.com; Margaret L. Estapa, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, firstname.lastname@example.org; David A. Siegel, University of California, Santa Barbara, email@example.com
Physical motions associated with submesoscale flows have many important implications for upper ocean planktonic communities and resulting biogeochemical fluxes. For example, upward submesoscale motions can inject nutrients into the euphotic zone, while downward motions can aggregate particles and export them from the euphotic zone. Observations of submesoscale features have largely come from ocean circulation model output or using appropriate satellite data products, and show that submesoscale features are ubiquitous. However, field results linking ocean biogeochemistry to submesoscale flows have lagged numerical experiments. This session brings together studies of submesoscale motions and how they might impact ecological communities, productivity, export and even foraging by higher trophic level species. Such studies may use modeling, remote sensing, sensors on floats, moorings and AUVs, high resolution in-situ sampling and lab experiments to study ocean ecological and biogeochemical processes that are only seen at smaller scales (<10 km). Sites of convergence and divergence that occur on smaller scales will also affect oceanic distributions of plastics, oil spills and other passive tracers, and evidence of these impacts would also be appropriate in this session.
In recent decades, Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) have expanded geographically, increased in duration and intensity, and resulted in escalated economic costs worldwide. HABs are a major threat to coastal economies because they negatively affect human and ecosystem health, coastal water quality, fisheries and recreation. As scientists continue to unravel the unique drivers and controls of blooms, research programs must be integrated with environmental management, education, and outreach efforts to develop strategies that protect public and resource health. In the last decade, there have been many examples of beneficial interactions between researchers, environmental agencies, industries and the public. For example, collaborations between researchers, aquaculture industries, coastal managers and citizen groups have been particularly successful in protecting public health from HABs while also promoting economic growth. It is promising that such cross-disciplinary collaborations continue to grow, yielding creative solutions to the challenges that HABs create. In this session, we invite presentations of case studies that highlight new or existing collaborations between research and non-research groups that hold a stake in HAB research, including scientists, regulatory agencies, public health groups, decision-makers, private stakeholders, and the public. This forum will provide an environment to foster such synergistic strategies.
Chemosynthesis is increasingly recognized to be more widespread and of larger significance in the ocean than previously thought. However, while a future ocean is expected to lead to an expansion of oxygen minimum zones supporting chemosynthetic processes, we currently lack a basic understanding of the main players, the pathways involved, and the regulation of energy and carbon transfer. This is even true for such charismatic environments as hydrothermal vents and cold seeps, where the general role and importance of chemosynthesis is well documented. Recent research further indicates that chemosynthesis plays a critical, yet currently poorly constrained role in other parts of the ocean system, most notably oxygen minimum zones and the deep-ocean subsurface. Recent advances in ‘omic’ technologies, functional assays of enrichments, and single-cell analysis make it now possible to obtain insights into the function of these microbial communities at an unprecedented level. Linking these ‘omic’ approaches to geochemical investigations and incorporating these data into innovative models presents great opportunities to advance our understanding of chemosynthetic communities and processes. Submissions from different lines of investigations using these approaches either in isolation or in combination are encouraged.
Interspecies interactions are at the core of success or failure of microbial species. For example, heterotrophic microbes are notoriously dependent on fixed carbon produced by autotrophic microalgae for survival. At the same time, many autotrophs acquire essential nutrients and metabolites from associated heterotrophic bacteria. Such interactions are an important feature of microbial communities, where synergism or competition among species contributes to ecosystem diversity and biogeochemical cycling. Next generation sequencing technologies and innovative experimental approaches are yielding unprecedented insights into these relationships and interactions and their influence on nutrient cycles. We invite contributions from laboratory and field studies that examine interactions between microbes in aquatic systems and their impact on local or global biogeochemistry. Research highlighting the biogeochemical importance of microbial associations, the role of interspecies communication in mediating interactions, or the role of climate change on microbial interactions is encouraged.
River basins connect the land to the coastal ocean. They integrate and process signals in their drainage basins and transmit processed signals to the coast. This session invites contributions that advance our understanding of land-derived signals transmitted to the coastal ocean. We especially invite contributions dealing with dynamic features of all scales from a variety of subdisciplines (hydrology, landscale evolution, tectonics, ecology, biogeochemistry) in river basins that are triggered by natural or anthropogenic forcings. Contributions focusing on processes in estuaries and the coast should be presented in companion session #27, whereas contributions dealing with cycling of organic matter should be submitted to companion session # 45.
Conveners:Daniel Nover, AAAS Sci. and Tech. Policy Fellow/EPA Global Change Research Program, firstname.lastname@example.org; S. Geoffrey Schladow, UC Davis - Tahoe Environmental Research Center, email@example.com; Christopher Clark, EPA Global Change Research Program, firstname.lastname@example.org; Craig Williamson, Miami University - Global Change Limnology Laboratory, email@example.com
The impact of climate change on air temperature and watershed hydrology is increasingly well documented. These impacts will have dramatic implications for lakes and reservoirs in terms of ecosystem health, ecosystem services, biodiversity, human health, and water supply. Increasing air temperature will lead to increasing surface water temperature and increasing density stratification which will lead to numerous impacts on water quality, aquatic habitat, and water supply. Changes to hydrology are less well understood and likely to vary regionally. However, such changes will similarly lead to shifts in lake/reservoir water quality. This symposium will bring together resource managers, academics and other stakeholders to 1) explore the scientific evidence for climate change impacts on lakes and reservoirs, 2) identify key regional vulnerabilities of lakes and reservoirs, and 3) explore available adaptation strategies for managing lakes and reservoirs under climate change. The objective of the symposium will be to bring together the major stakeholders in the field to develop a broader understanding of these issues and initiate a nationwide assessment of lake/reservoir vulnerability to climate change.
The web of interactions between photoautotrophs and other microbes is appearing to be increasingly complex. Predation, allelopathy, mutualism, cell-cell communication, cell-cell carbon transfer, vitamin interactions, etc are some examples of the spectrum of possibly important processes that go beyond the ‘bottom up’ look at ecology and evolution. This special symposium will examine the latest developments in this field. Examples of the communication of this research to broader audiences and K-12 education are welcome.
Two-decades of genomics-enabled exploration have revealed the ocean’s major microbial taxa and have begun to constrain their physiological potential. Simultaneously, analytical advances in biogeochemistry have opened new windows into the dynamics of metals and biomolecules in marine systems. While global sectional datasets of nutrients, radiotracers, and the carbon dioxide system continue to elucidate key oceanographic processes, sectional studies of genomes, metals, and biomolecules are also yielding important insights. Combining complementary ocean sections of geochemical, genomic, and biomolecular data has the potential to reveal new feedbacks between global environmental change and the biogeography of marine microbes (e.g. connections between shifts in microbial community structure, migrations of ocean biome boundaries, and alterations in marine ecosystem services). We invite the presentation of studies where sectional genomic or biomolecular datasets have been integrated with sectional geochemical datasets (e.g. GEOTRACES) to explore the biogeochemical functions of microbes in aquatic ecosystems (marine, estuarine, lacustrine). In addition to ocean-basin scale studies, we encourage submissions describing smaller scale studies that might serve as models for future global-scale efforts. Studies utilizing sectional genomic or biomolecular datasests to relate microbial biogeography to geochemical gradients are particularly welcome.
Conveners:Katherine McMahon, University of Wisconsin Madison, USA, firstname.lastname@example.org; Stefan Bertilsson, Uppsala University, Sweden, email@example.com; Hans-Peter Grossart, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, IGB-Berlin, firstname.lastname@example.org
Freshwater microbial communities are highly dynamic, with drivers of change operating at multiple time scales ranging from minutes to years. Regular and consistent sampling of communities and rich contextual environmental data across these time scales is necessary in order to develop a deep and predictive understanding of how communities assemble and perform key ecosystem functions. This session will feature research that embraces the use of time series and high-resolution spatial sampling to study freshwater microbial communities with a variety of techniques including next- generation sequencing-enabled tag sequencing, metagenomics, fluorescent in situ hybridization, automated samplers, and high-frequency in situ sensor monitoring. The potential for near-real-time monitoring of harmful cyanobacterial blooms to enable now-casting water quality models and early warning systems for public health authorities will be emphasized. A recent new joint initiative launched by the Earth Microbiome Project (http://www.earthmicrobiome.org/) and the Global Lakes Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON) (http://www.gleon.org/) will be highlighted.
Nitrogen, phosphorus, and silica are key macronutrients regulating primary productivity in marine basins. High loads of nitrogen and phosphorus in river, agricultural, municipal, and industrial runoff are recognized as key ingredients for steering the extent of eutrophication in coastal systems, which carries undesirable secondary effects such as harmful algal blooms and coastal anoxia. The need for catchment-scale reduction measures has been agreed to at the international level, but the realization of these reduction measures requires concerted political and often expensive actions at the local level, where investments will be critically evaluated for their efficiency. Two key questions remain at the heart of implementing and assessing the effect of nutrient reduction measures: the overall net nitrogen loss potential via denitrification and anammox and the degree of internal loading of phosphorus that is recycled from anoxic marine sediment. Progress remains to be made in understanding microbial regulatory processes in the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles, and the temporal and spatial variability of these processes. This session will bring together scientists studying mass balances and fluxes of key dissolved nutrients in eutrophied coastal systems and marginal seas through observational and modeling approaches. We invite contributions that use stable isotope mass balances, tracer experiments, modeling approaches, and results from monitoring programs to obtain an integrated view of our recent understanding of coastal and marginal basin nutrient budgets and their temporal and spatial variability.
Presentations are solicited on research in the areas of lakes, wetlands and rivers in extreme environments and/or evidence for aquatic environments elsewhere in the solar system, present or past. This session will honor Robert Wharton Jr. and his scientific interests. Dr. Wharton was one of the pioneers in investigating the astrobiological relevance of extreme aquatic environments. He and Dr. Chris McKay of NASA Ames were the first to look at the McMurdo Dry Valley lakes as analogs for lakes on Mars in the past. Dr. Wharton was also the founding lead investigator of the McMurdo Dry Valleys LTER site. Dr. Wharton was an active member of the ASLO community, including hosting the1995 annual meeting in Reno Nevada. He passed away in September 2012