SS4.08 Global Freshwater Quality: Issues, needs and solutions
Date: Wednesday, June 12, 2002
Time: 10:00:00 AM
Location: Carson A
 
HerrmannJ, GIWA / Univ. of Kalmar, Dept. of Biology and Environmental Science, Kalmar, Sweden, jan.herrmann@hik.se
Rautalahti-Miettinen, E, , GIWA (Global International Waters Assessment), Kalmar, Sweden, elina.rautalahti@giwa.net
Daler, D, , GIWA, Kalmar, Sweden, dag.daler@giwa.net
 
FRESHWATER RESOURCES AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES; THE GLOBAL GIWA PROJECT
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The Global International Waters Assessment UNEP-GIWA produces globally comparable assessments and examines stresses on international waters; marine, coastal and fresh; surface and ground waters. The GIWA methodology is two-staged; analytical (scaling/scoping, impact assessment, causal chain analysis) and predictive phase (scenarios, policy option analysis). Assuming intrinsic values of aquatic ecosystems, the assessment of socio-economic impacts focuses on human use of water. Local experts in 66 GIWA subregions make interdisciplinary environmental judgments; limnology, oceanography, biology, health, economics. Freshwater improvements are essential also for marine recovery, and biology for ecosystem functions and use by mankind; both are fundamentals for GIWA and Kalmar research. Preliminary: freshwater shortage in many subregions, reflecting stream flow modification, pollution, water table change. Reasons: dam constructions, pumping/irrigation, intensive agriculture, deepened wells, increasing of salt-content in soil, wetland losses. Water in many subregions cannot meet WHO standards. Main socio-economic indicators: economy, health, social and community impacts, with differences between urban and non-urban areas. Upstream/downstream conflicts due to freshwater shortage have increased. So have agricultural and drinking water losses and costs for alternative water supplies. Locally, freshwater shortage has caused population migration.