Call for Papers
Abstract Submittal Deadline
3 October 2008
Student Travel Grant Recipients Notified
25-30 January 2009
Click the session title to see its organizers and abstract. Click the title again to close it. Sessions 54 and 65 are sponsored by the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation.
This session is for undergraduate and beginning graduate students, primarily affiliated with the ASLO Multicultural Program (ASLOMP). Students will give oral presentations of their research findings in a friendly atmosphere that encourages constructive criticism. Appropriate submission from students not affiliated with ASLOMP will also be considered. The student symposium has been a feature of ASLO meetings since 1991, and is a central of the ASLOMP.
The predicted effects of climate change on the open ocean point to concurrent alteration of many factors that determine algal community structure, set rates of primary production, and control carbon and nutrient cycling. In turn, these shifts in phytoplankton assemblages could drive a number of postive and negative feedbacks to global climate. Changing light climate, temperature, macronutrient and trace metal inventories, pCO2 and ocean acidification, and biological competition and trophic interactions will potentially alter both ecosystem structure and ocean biogeochemistry, yet are challenging to include within the design of traditional perturbation experiments. In this session we encourage presentations that represent and encompass the wide variety of approaches - from modeling experiments, mesocosms, and in situ observations to physiological and genetic investigations of lab cultures - that are needed to tackle this most pressing of issues.
Organizers: Angel Borja, AZTI-Tecnalia (Pasaia, Spain), firstname.lastname@example.org; Daniel M. Dauer, Old Dominion University (Virginia, USA), email@example.com; Michael Elliott, University of Hull (United Kingdom), Mike.Elliott@hull.ac.uk; Charles (Si) Simenstad, University of Washington (Washington, USA), firstname.lastname@example.org
ORAL SESSION In restoring marine and estuarine ecosystem processes, structure and function, the response/recovery time of physico-chemical variables (e.g., oxygen increase) is relatively rapid compared to biological elements (i.e., plankton, benthos, fishes). This session focuses on medium- to long-time series (>10 years) of biological data that illustrate the resilience, resistance and parallelism of response to restoration of marine/estuarine systems worldwide. Some legislation (e.g., European Water Framework Directive, US Clean Water Act) requires the determination of the ecological status of modified water bodies with the aim of restoring and/or protecting good ecological potential (the ecological status in the absence of anthropogenic stressors). This requires a thorough understanding of ecosystem processes and functioning, gained not only by comparing monitoring data against reference conditions, but also by predicting appropriate ecosystem structure and function in the absence of anthropogenic stress and variability in response at different landscape scales. Although we have gained much knowledge in recent years about the responses of individual marine ecosystems to restoration, our knowledge is far from comprehensive and usually not cumulative. The results of this oral session can be a useful tool in organizing this knowledge leading to modelling scenarios of the ecological potential assessment - the ultimate objective of this session.
Macroscopic organic aggregates constitute the upper end of the dissolved-particulate matter continuum, and their formation and fate depend on complex interactions at physical, chemical and biological levels. They represent one of the most important vectors regulating the vertical export of biogenic carbon, nutrients and trace metals. Depending on their fate, they can settle down and be sequestered, be solubilized in the water column, or ascend and be remineralized at the air-sea interface. Hence, their modification determines whether aquatic systems act as sources or as sinks of inorganic carbon. While the physical fate of aggregates may depend on parameters such as density, composition, age, and physico-chemical perturbations the cycling of elements is governed by microbial activity. On the other hand, aggregates potentially regulate the development of microbial communities both at the microscale and ecosystem levels. This session will focus on the role of macroscopic organic aggregates in structuring microbial communities, and on the role of attached communities in regulating the fate of POM and cycling of elements. Contributions discussing ecological consequences linked to community and activity of attached microbes for organic matter cycling and dynamics of pelagic microbes, as well as forcing parameters of the aggregate-microbe interactions are particularly encouraged.
As the oceanographic community develops different approaches to constraint the ocean’s role in the carbon cycle, availability of data on large spatial scales and short temporal scales has become essential. The only source of biogeochemical data on these scales comes from ocean color remote sensing. In the past few year inversions of ocean color have moved beyond the estimation of phytoplankton pigment to include, among other, estimates of particulate organic carbon, phytoplankton carbon, particulate size distribution, and phytoplankton functional groups. In addition, inversion products have been used in new ways to constrain a variety of processes as well as variables involved in the modeling of upper ocean biogeochemistry. Which specific model variable can be adequately constrained or tested with ocean color products is still a matter of research, in particular given the possible uncertainties in some of the products. This session is intended to highlight recent advances as well as to enhance communication and collaboration between ocean color practitioners and the oceanographers who use their products.
The concept of ecosystem-based fisheries management or the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries (EAF) has been in development for over a decade. However, operational implementation of the concept remains elusive. This is partly due to data constraints at scales relevant to fisheries applications. For example, near real-time information on large spatial (fish stock area) and short temporal (days~weeks~months) oceanographic processes influencing survival and recruitment of the larvae of commercial fish stocks is difficult to acquire. Remotely-sensed data, including ocean colour, sea-surface temperature and altimetry from satellites, can alleviate these constraints for arguably the most important environmental factors relevant to fisheries: food availability, temperature and water movements. This session will be devoted to current research and operations in fisheries oceanography that uses remotely-sensed data applied to stock assessments; stock management in the medium term; fisheries harvesting methods; and contributions to the ecosystem approach in the broadest sense. This session builds on the international initiative SAFARI (Societal Applications in Fisheries & Aquaculture using Remotely-sensed Imagery, http://www.geosafari.org) and is dedicated to David Cushing (1920-2008), a pioneer in fisheries oceanography.
Organizers: Bradley Eyre, Southern Cross University, email@example.com; Joanne Oakes, Southern Cross University, firstname.lastname@example.org; Bart Veuger, Netherlands Institute of Ecology, B.Veuger@nioo.knaw.nl; Eric Boschker, Netherlands Institute of Ecology, E.Boschker@nioo.knaw.nl
Stable isotope tracers are a powerful tool for following the flow of carbon and nitrogen through biogeochemical processes and the lower food web. This session invites biogeochemical and ecological contributions that have used either small scale or whole system labeling as a tool for elucidating carbon and nitrogen flows in freshwater, brackish and marine ecosystems. Of particular interest are studies that have investigated the flow of carbon and nitrogen through both the biogeochemical processes and the lower food and studies that combine both biomarkers and stable isotope tracers.
Organizers: Gillian Stewart, Queens College, CUNY, email@example.com; Pere Masque, Universitat Atonoma de Barcelona, Pere.Masque@uab.es; J. Kirk Cochran, Stony Brook University, firstname.lastname@example.org; Juan Carlos Miquel, Marine Environment Lab, IAEA, J.C.Miquel@iaea.org
Applying radionuclides as tracers of particles and the elements associated with them has now become almost a standard practice in large oceanographic research initiatives. The short-lived daughter isotopes of the natural U-Th decay series have become frequently used proxies for carbon, silicon, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus fluxes. This session will provide a forum for discussion of results of such applications, as well as developments of methods and advances in modeling. Recently, there has been interest in the interactions between these isotopes and colloidal or microbiological substances, the mechanisms behind scavenging in deep water, and interpretations of non-steady state results. Presentations about ocean-atmosphere interactions, mesopelagic remineralization, complications of coastal settings, and cycling of radionuclides by marine organisms would also be welcome. We encourage submissions from the molecular to global scale, and look forward to promoting the continued use and development of these proxies in oceanography.
Aquatic macrophytes may form a conspicuous portion of benthic habitats, often sustaining rich and diverse food webs, and interacting closely with other autotrophs such as phytoplankton and periphyton. Macrophytes impact the dynamics of nutrients, carbon, oxygen or pH, and modulate the structure and dynamics of pelagic and benthic food webs. Interactions among macrophytes and other primary producers are complex, and include competition for resources (light, nutrients) and chemically mediated interference (allelopathy). Macrophytes also provide refuge for zooplankton and a physical structure for macroinvertebrates and spawning fish, mediating their predatory–prey interactions, and affect particle sedimentation and resuspension rates. Many of these features play central roles in determining alternative stable states in shallow-water ecosystems, with important implications for their management. Despite an increasing knowledge on single interactions, their in situ relevance, the interplay of processes and the impact of external factors such as eutrophication, climate change, aquatic–terrestrial coupling or changes in food web structure are still far from well understood. This session invites papers that contribute to a further understanding of interactions between macrophytes, algae, and other organisms in all types of aquatic habitats.
Organizers: Télesphore Sime-Ngando, CNRS, Univ. Blaise Pascal, Telesphore.SIME-NGANDO@univ-bpclermont.fr; Nathalie Niquil, Univ. La Rochelle, email@example.com; Thomas Pommier, CNRS, Univ. Montpellier II, firstname.lastname@example.org; Carlos Pedrós-Alió, Institut de Ciències del Mar, CSIC, email@example.com
Introduction of molecular methods from the mid-1980s has increasingly improved our knowledge of biodiversity. Major methodological, conceptual an empirical advances are known from aquatic microbial ecology, arguably the greatest advances in environmental sciences. More recent advances in sequencing technology are beginning to open our eyes to the huge dimensions of the microbial diversity hidden in natural waters. Because (i) aquatic systems are the largest in the Earth, (ii) microbial death is highly unlikely, (iii) sexuality is not a limiting factor, and (iv) the number of microbial “species” ranges from millions to hundreds of millions, a very large number of species may be represented by only one single cell among a million present in one mL of a pelagic water. Rare microbes may have special properties, including resistance to viruses and grazers, high turnover time but also a potential for rapid clonal replication in suitable conditions for growth. Due to their size and the lack of conspicuous ultrastructural features, some aquatic microbes, with unexpected putative functions, have been wrongfully affiliated in the past. This session invites contributions that address all aspects (methodological, conceptual etc… but with ecological implications) of missing, rare or wrongfully regarded microbial diversity in aquatic systems.
Organizers: Eric Boschker, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Yerseke, the Netherlands, firstname.lastname@example.org; Steven Bouillon, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium, email@example.com; Joanne Oakes, Southern Cross University, Lismore, AU, firstname.lastname@example.org; Dirk Erler, Southern Cross University, Lismore, AU, email@example.com
Stable isotope signatures of nutrients and organic matter at the natural abundance level have shown to be powerful tracers to elucidate their sources and cycling in the environment, including the transfer of organic matter sources to higher trophic levels. The continuing analytical advances now enable stable isotope signatures to be measured on an increasing range of substrates and individual compounds. This session welcomes contributions on biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients from along the aquatic continuum (lakes, rivers, estuaries, ocean) in which the application of stable isotopes at the natural abundance level plays a prominent role.
Organizers: Cecile Guieu, Laboratoire d'Oceanographie de Villefranche/Mer CNRS-UPMC, firstname.lastname@example.org; Stéphane Blain, Laboratoire d'Océanographie Biologique, CNRS-UPMC, email@example.com; Alex Baker, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Alex.Baker@uea.ac.uk
The biogeochemistry of the marine oligotrophic environments, characterized by low nutrient and low chlorophyll conditions, is extremely sensitive to the magnitude and the nature of the chemical atmospheric flux. The case of iron has emphasized the complexity of the processes (dissolution, bioavailability) and of the response of the ecosystem (for example competition diazotroph-non diazotrophs). But the atmosphere is also a significant source for other important elements, N, P, trace metals, carbon (DOC, black carbon) which can impact different trophic levels of the ecosystem. The LNLC regions represent 60% of the global ocean; however their role in the carbon cycle and their response to changes in atmospheric forcing (climate change, anthropogenic pressure) is still poorly understood. This session encourages submissions, from process studies to modelling work, from the molecular level to the global scale, that address these issues.
Organizers: Lee Karp-Boss, University of Maine, USA, firstname.lastname@example.org; Elisa Berdalet, Institute de Ciencies del Mar (SCIC), Barcelona, Catalunya, Spain, Elisa.Berdalet@icm.csic.es; Roman Stocker, Massachusetts Institute of Technology , USA, romans@MIT.EDU; Hidekatsu Yamazaki, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Japan, email@example.com
Since the seminal papers of Munk and Riley (1954) and Margalef (1978), there has been a growing body of theoretical and empirical work supporting the idea that microscale physical processes are critical in determining the nutrition, growth, physiology, behavior, encounter rates and spatiotemporal distribution of planktonic organisms. Multiple approaches have been used to study small-scale physical-biological interactions in aquatic environments, ranging from simplified cartoons of flow fields and microscale laboratory models to more complex numerical simulations and turbulence-generation devices. While this suite of methods has brought about important new insights, comparison between different approaches and extrapolation of results to the natural environment remain difficult. Furthermore, field data on physical and biological structures at relevant scales are scarce and new microscale sensors are only now beginning to be developed. This hinders a comprehensive and unified understanding of small-scale physical-biological interactions, in particular at the turbulence dissipation scale. This session aims to bring together aquatic physicists, biologists, engineers and applied mathematicians to discuss new results, insights, approaches and challenges in the study of the effects of small-scale fluid motion on the physiology and ecology of planktonic organisms, identify future research directions and establish new interdisciplinary collaborations between teams.
Organizers: Michael D. Krom, University of Leeds, M.D.Krom@see.leeds.ac.uk; Tsuneo Tanaka, Centre d'Océanologie de Marseille, Tsuneo.Tanaka@univmed.fr; Ilana Berman-Frank, Bar-Ilan University, firstname.lastname@example.org; Sophie Bonnet, IRD/ Centre d'Océanologie de Marseille, Sophie.BONNET@univmed.fr; Douglas G. Capone, University of Southern California, email@example.com
The Mediterranean is an unusual sea in several important ways. It is almost landlocked with major (and increasing) inputs of pollutants including nutrients particularly from Europe in the north and yet it remains one of the most extreme oligotrophic bodies of water anywhere in the world. It is the only major body of water which in recent times has had a known change in physical circulation, the eastern Mediterranean transient, caused by climatic or anthropogenic change. It has unusual high N:P ratio whose cause is still unknown though high N2-fixation or high N:P ratio in inputs and low denitrification rates have been suggested. In this session we propose to bring together new results from a series of international and national programmes including EUROCEAN to further our understanding of the biogeochemical processes including aspects of microbial loop, nitrogen fixation and nutrient supply and recycling occurring in this important ecosystem.
Organizers: David Amouroux, CNRS UMR 5254, Institut pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l'Environnement, firstname.lastname@example.org; Thomas M. Church, College of Marine and Earth Studies, University of Delaware, email@example.com
The aquatic interfaces host biogeochemical processes central to aquatic life, beyond just the exchange of key carbon and nutrient species. Abundant studies evidence the role of the lighter elements (C, N, P etc) central to basic life processes in the aquatic environment, including photosynthesis, respiration, and the production of radiatively important (“green house”) gases. However, other trace element and nutrient species are just as vital in the catalytic role of enzymes central to the fixation and transfer of these lighter elements. Included is the input of labile trace element nutrients across interfaces at aquatic ecosystems, resulting in meta-stable species or compounds, and subsequent reactions essential for the demands of key biotic reactions. The processes occur over a wide range of time (seconds to months) and space (micron to kilometer) scales associated with trace element input, micro-niches (e.g, colloids), diurnal (e.g. light/dark) photochemistry, and seasonal biotic turnover. Such reactions in turn can lead to biogenic sources of trace element species labile or volatile for exchange across interfaces, ranging across particles, membranes or the atmosphere and sediment interface. In fact, many key processes occur right at or within the “skin” of the atmospheric or sediment surface micro-layers. While certain elements such as Fe have received separate attention, other trace nutrients (e.g. P, Zn, Co, Mo etc), calcogen (e.g. S, Se), metalloid (e.g. As, Sb) or “heavy” (e.g. Cd, Hg, Pb, Sn) elements have sources and species also important to the health or detriment of aquatic life. This session is proposed to highlight both laboratory and field investigations, the use of modern instrumental and technical tools, as well as multi-disciplinary approaches. Examples include combined biochemical/geochemical studies, analytical resolution of redox and organic speciation, and use of radio/stable isotopic tracers. In conclusion, this session will provide an international forum for identifying and quantifying trace element inputs, transformation, and exchange processes at fundamental aquatic interfaces.
Organizers: Gerhard J. Herndl, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, firstname.lastname@example.org; Javier Arístegui, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Ca, email@example.com; Dennis A. Hansell, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, firstname.lastname@example.org
The dark ocean is, in terms of volume, the largest yet least known oceanic subsystem. Traditionally, this vast volume of the ocean has been considered almost barren of life and of low overall biogeochemical activity. Over the past 10 years, however, physical oceanographers and geochemists have increasingly reported variations and changes in the formation and hydrodynamics of the deep-water masses linked to signs of global change. An increase in temperature in the deep-water masses has been noticed for the Atlantic as well as the Pacific and the invasion of anthropogenic carbon dioxide occurs deep into the Atlantic. Recent methodological advances ranging from cabled networks and autonomous sensor systems to genomics have resulted in more detailed information on the biogeochemistry and biology of the ocean’s interior. Novel metabolic pathways of prokaryotes have been discovered, and the geochemical estimates of element cycles in the deep-ocean have been compared to actual rate measurements on deep-sea communities and to the genomic inventory of microbes. Taken together, the emerging view is that the deep ocean is more dynamic and harbors a more complex biogeochemistry and biota than assumed hitherto. This session invites contributions from all field of deep-water oceanography ranging from large-scale water mass transport to (bio)geochemistry and biology.
Alpine streams and lakes located above treeline are generally considered remote and pristine ecosystems, but in many places around the world, they have been threatened by climate change and human activities. Acidification, nutrient enrichment (particularly in nitrogen), accumulation of volatile organic contaminants, damming, and introduction of alien species are just some of the processes transforming our best freshwater reference sites. These multiple alterations have occurred in a very short time span of their ontogeny, highlighting the fragile character of these ecosystems, which is partially a consequence of the harsh environmental conditions governing them, such as low temperature, oligotrophy, high UV radiation, and isolation. On the other hand, their rapid response makes them very valuable as indicators of global changes. In this session, we welcome contributions that include alpine waters across the world to assess global change effects, as well as comparative studies that use these end members for numerous gradients to help us examine broader ecological concepts. Studies that include polar waters that share many similar characteristics and ecological problems are also welcome. Objectives of this session are to examine the magnitude of their ecological alteration at a global scale, to consider unrecognized threats, and to learn novel aspects of their ecology.
Organizers: Thomas Mock, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, UK, email@example.com; Frank Oliver Gloeckner, MPI for Marine Microbiology, Germany, firstname.lastname@example.org; Julie LaRoche, Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences (IFM-GEOMAR), Germany, email@example.com
Biogeochemical cycling of elements in the ocean is based on a collective metabolisms of a diverse community of organisms. Organisms differ in their physiology that is largely based on a dynamic genetic repertoire. The expressed phenotypes are influenced by environmental forcing, ultimately controlling fluxes of energy and matter. Our session will discuss the potential of molecular tools to find the genetic underpinnings of biogeochemical processes from freshwater to oceanic systems. These molecular tools may include phylogenetic approaches to asses species diversity, genome sequencing and gene expression analysis to identify the genetic blueprint of organisms and their molecular response to changing environmental conditions as well as metagenomic and –transcriptomic studies to characterize whole communities on a molecular level. The synergism between molecular approaches from single gene to metagenomic studies and process-oriented field data probably will lead to new ecological theories and novel species concepts. We need to develop comprehensive ecological models based on long-term observations that integrate a broad range of scales from genes to ecosystems to predict changes in communities due to anthropogenic impact that already alters ocean chemistry and physics.
It is currently much debated if microorganisms exhibit biogeographical patterns similar to those of macroorganisms. Recent data has shown that local contemporary habitat conditions as well as cell dispersal can shape the spatial distribution of taxa. However, it is not well known under which circumstances different mechanisms dominate. The topic comprises studies of microorganisms from all three domains of life. Contributions presenting results from comparative studies dealing with contrasting seasons and habitat types as well as organisms on different trophic levels in aquatic food webs are especially welcomed.
Organizers: Anja Engel, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, German, firstname.lastname@example.org; Cindy Lee, School of Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Bro, email@example.com; Madeleine Goutx, Centre d’Océanologie de Marseille, Laboratoire de Microbiologie Marine, Mar, firstname.lastname@example.org; Robert Armstrong, School of Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Bro, email@example.com
Quantifying carbon fluxes from the surface to the ocean’s interior and sediments, and understanding the underlying mechanisms that drive these fluxes, are both essential for evaluating the ocean’s role in the sequestration of atmospheric CO2, and for predicting global change. Over the last few decades, information on rates and efficiencies of organic matter export in the ocean has increased greatly. New insights into mechanisms determining export processes, stoichiometric rain ratios of particles, particle settling rates, fragmentation and decomposition of sinking particles, and microbiology of particles have been obtained. Several hypotheses have been proposed that emphasize a tight coupling between biological processes and export efficiency, e.g. ballasting and protection of organic matter by biogenic minerals, gel particle formation and enhancement of aggregation dynamics, and possible key roles of phyto- and zooplankton functional groups. There is increasing awareness that global environmental changes such as ocean acidification, rising sea surface temperature, increased stratification, and altered dust input may affect particle composition and dynamics, with potentially important consequences for export processes and rates. This session invites submission of results of experimental, field, and modelling studies that aim to improve the understanding and prediction of organic matter export processes in the present and future ocean.
Organizers: Gill Malin, University of East Anglia, U.K., firstname.lastname@example.org; Ron Kiene, University of South Alabama, U.S.A., email@example.com; Maurice Levasseur, Université Laval, Canada., firstname.lastname@example.org
We propose a session of oral presentations and a poster session. Emissions of dimethyl sulphide [DMS; (CH3)2S] play an important role in the global biogeochemical sulphur cycle, as well as influencing the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere and the climate system. Over the last 20 years a lot of research effort has focussed on DMS production in marine aquatic environments. The major DMS precursor, dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), is synthesised by some types of marine phytoplankton and seaweed, and represents a major pool of organic sulphur and carbon in the ocean. Some DMSP-producers release DMS directly, but in many cases complex food web interactions with grazers, viruses and bacteria are involved. Once produced, DMS is subject to several important removal processes, including sea-air exchange, biological oxidation, and photolysis, the latter two producing dimethylsulphoxide. Ultimately only a minor fraction of the DMSP-sulphur reaches the air as DMS which makes the biogeochemical controls on DMS production and consumption of great interest. The level of climate-cooling related to DMS, via the production of aerosols and promotion of cloud formation, and the potential for feedbacks in this biogeochemical system are hotly debated topics. We invite papers for a broad-based session on DMS- and DMSP-related research.
Organizers: Corina P.D. Brussaard, NIOZ - Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, The Netherlands, email@example.com; Rachel Noble, UNC Chapel Hill Institute of Marine Sciences, firstname.lastname@example.org; Thierry Bouvier, Université Montpellier 2, France, email@example.com; Roberto Danovaro, Polytechnic University of Marche Department of Marine Sciences, firstname.lastname@example.org
Viruses are the smallest and most numerous of all biotic agents. They represent the planet’s largest pool of genetically diverse organisms and they also impact host population dynamics, ecosystem structure, and biogeochemical cycling. New methods and application of novel genomic approaches, in tandem with improved access to a wide array of aquatic environments have contributed to enormous recent advances in the field of aquatic viral ecology. The results clearly indicate that it is important to integrate studies on multiple scales and including attention to biogeochemistry, (meta)genomics and modeling in order to elucidate the emerging role of viruses on global-scale processes. This session will explore our current understanding of the many different roles of viruses as if it were a cruise through aquatic viral ecology. It will provide a forum for discussion of new and exciting results of studies conducted across multiple scales. We invite contributions on all aspects of viral ecology, from laboratory and field-based studies, from fresh- to seawater, from sediment and benthic environments, and from pole to pole. Of particular interest are comparative, extrapolatory studies to gain large scale perspectives.
Major international programs (IGBP, JGOFS, GLOBEC; ICES, etc.) have generated a large of information on the biogeochemical foundations, functioning and structure of marine food webs. Parallel technological developments, ranging from satellite imagery to autonomous underwater vehicles, have increased by orders of magnitude the resolution and amount of data available on relevant properties of the ocean ecosystem. The resulting data represent a key resource to explore patterns of both the structure and functioning of ocean ecosystems. This vast resource remains largely unexploited, as these data have generally been used within a local and regional context. Few attempts have yet been made to synthesise and integrate these results to deliver a coherent, global perspective of the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems. Meta-analytical and comparative approaches have been used to tackle such issues in many other fields (e. g., economics, medicine, terrestrial and freshwater ecology) but only to a limited extent in marine ecology. The objective of this session is to bring together studies applying metanalysis and comparative approaches to marine ecosystems in order to encourage the use of synthetic approaches. All applications of metanalysis and comparative approaches to marine ecology, from bacteria to fisheries, particularly those revealing general laws, are encouraged.
Organizers: Clare Bradshaw, Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Sweden, email@example.com; Helmut Hillebrand, Botanical Institute, University of Cologne, Germany, firstname.lastname@example.org
Both freshwater and marine ecosystems experience dramatic shifts in the availability and relative composition of mineral nutrients and trace elements due to human alterations of global biogeochemical cycles. The consequences of these changes can only be understood in a framework comprising different levels of ecological organisation. A very successful approach is ecological stoichiometry (ES), the study of the balance of multiple chemical elements in ecosystem components, interactions and processes. ES has already been used to investigate the constraints and consequences of mass balances of elements on production, host-pathogen interactions, symbiosis, nutrient cycling and food web dynamics. In this session we will primarily address stoichiometric constraints in community (species interactions, food web dynamics) and ecosystem (nutrient cycling, trophic transfer) ecology. We especially welcome presentations exploring ES in novel ways, for example by: - investigating previously unexplored ecological theories, or addressing accepted theories in a stoichiometric perspective - examining previously understudied organisms or ecosystems - studying multiple levels of biological/ecological organisation, or - investigating dispersal and uptake of trace or non-essential elements in the environment. We will keep an empty slot at the end of the session devoted to discussions on open questions and collaborative approaches to ES.
Organizers: Christophe Migon, Laboratoire d'Oceanographie de Villefranche, Observatoire Oceanologique de , email@example.com; Fabrizio D'Ortenzio, Laboratoire d'Oceanographie de Villefranche, Observatoire Oceanologique de , firstname.lastname@example.org; Scott W. Fowler, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Marine Sciences Research Center,, email@example.com
There is a consensus that the Mediterranean Sea can serve as a model for the global ocean, and its study will enable us to better understand and predict many processes in marine biogeochemistry. However, while climatic and environmental constraints are dramatically and rapidly evolving on the global scale, most available synthesis studies of the Mediterranean are based on sparse and sometimes relatively old data. Hence there is an urgent need to upgrade, on a basin scale, budgets, fluxes and understanding of critical processes in the entire Mediterranean taking into account new information and recent advances in data syntheses and modelling. This session is devoted to evaluating and synthesizing new data for biogeochemical cycles involving element cycling, nutrient fluxes and budgets, productivity, carbon export and ecosystem functioning in the Mediterranean. Reviews on the current state of knowledge on specific issues that contribute to an improved understanding of Mediterranean ecosystem functioning are welcome. This session also offers an opportunity to present on-going and future programmes and actions focusing on the above topics.
Organizers: Cornelia Maier, Laboratoire d'Océanographie de Villefranche-sur-Mer, firstname.lastname@example.org; Bernhard Riegl, Nova Southeastern University, email@example.com; Justin B. Ries, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, firstname.lastname@example.org; Christian Wild, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, email@example.com
Anthropogenic changes in the chemistry and temperature of seawater constitute a major threat to the survival of tropical, temperate and cold-water coral reefs and coral communities. CO2-induced ocean acidification and warming along with terrestrial runoff and pollution negatively affect health, growth and calcification of corals. However, the extent to which these indirect and direct anthropogenic stresses will interact and impact corals and coral-based ecosystems is not well understood. The differential responses of distinct coral ecotypes and other carbonate accreting or eroding reef organisms need better study. Also, little is known how function and diversity of coral-associated fauna, flora and microbes will be affected by environmental change. Scleractinian corals follow common principles and mechanisms with regards to ecological functioning and framework building. Nevertheless, individual species have adapted to a wide range of latitudes and depths via distinct morphologies, calcification rates, physiologies, and symbioses. Such differences may bring about and explain variable responses to environmental change. We therefore wish to approach the topic on a broad basis, across both the ecosystem and the individual, to better understand what controls changes and phase shifts in coral communities. We encourage contributions from multiple disciplines, particularly those incorporating ecological, physiological, microbiological, geochemical, sedimentological, palaeontological, and palaeo-proxy perspectives.
Ecosystem processes, which are largely controlled by the structure and composition of planktonic communities, are important determinants of ocean biogeochemistry, and can be profoundly affected by changes in climate. The present view of the pelagic community has evolved from the linear diatom to copepod to fish paradigm to the current complex, yet incomplete view of highly diverse interacting heterotrophic and autotrophic assemblages with multiple and overlapping nutritional modes and biogeochemical roles. Biogeochemical processes are thought to be strongly linked to functional characteristics of planktonic organisms (i.e. plankton functional types; PTF). Recently, PTF-based models have been used to improve the understanding of interactions between marine ecosystems and climate, and to reduce the uncertainties of model predictions. This special session will examine the relationships among community structure and composition, ecosystem function and biogeochemical cycling of climate active compounds. We invite papers on all food-web components (from bacteria to whale), including laboratory, field or modeling studies that consider the influence and interactions of community structure on ecosystem and biogeochemical processes. Combining recent progress in these different research areas will advance our understanding of feedbacks among plankton communities, ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles.
Anthropogenic activities are seriously affecting the quality of groundwater and the connected surface waters worldwide. Increased demand for water is leading to enhanced groundwater extraction, falling groundwater tables and, in coastal areas, saltwater intrusion. Agricultural use of fertilizer and pesticides, infiltration of wastewater and urbanization pose further threats to the quality of groundwater and surface water systems. Climate change is expected to play a major role in further hydrological and biogeochemical alterations through, for example, changes in precipitation patterns, sea level rise and necessary adaptions in water resource management. This session invites presentations that focus on human and/or climate impacts on physical, chemical and biological processes that affect the quality of groundwater and/or the linkage with surface waters of lakes, rivers and the marine coastal zone. Topics of interest include - but are not limited to - the dynamics of nutrients, trace metals, pesticides and pharmaceuticals in fresh water systems and/or their (submarine) discharge in coastal areas. Both experimental and modeling approaches are welcome ranging from laboratory studies, field studies at the aquifer or watershed scale to global scale groundwater modeling.
Organizers: Nadine Le Bris, IFREMER, firstname.lastname@example.org; Michail Yakimov, Insitute for Coastal Marine Environment IAMC-CNR, email@example.com; Stefan Sievert, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, firstname.lastname@example.org
Extreme environments in the deep-sea, such as hydrothermal vents, hydrocarbon seeps, brine lakes or massive organic falls are characterised by steep chemical gradients at the interface between reducing fluids and seawater. Lower pH, high concentration of toxic gases (e.g., H2S, CO2) and dissolved metals constraint the ability of organisms to live at these interfaces. These environments however harbour some of the most productive marine communities. Chemolithoautotrophy and symbioses have been identified as key processes sustaining high biomass production in some particular contexts, but much remains to be known about the mechanisms of energy transfer from molecules to organisms in a wide range of oceanic settings and their role in ocean biogeochemistry. The aim of this session is to bring together microbiology, biochemistry, geochemistry and symbiosis biology to provide a more comprehensive view of the diverse mechanisms sustaining high biological activity at redox chemical interfaces in the deep ocean. Availability of chemical substrates, diversity of pathways related to carbon fixation and energy generation, metabolic preferences of prokaryotes, adaptability of symbioses and their interactions with biogeochemical processes, as well as the potential large-scale impacts of these processes will be considered. Submissions describing interdisciplinary work and/or new analytical capabilities will be particularly welcome.
Accurate determination of the levels of Gross Primary Production, Respiration and other loss processes in aquatic environments are fundamental for understanding the functioning of these ecosystems. The need for progress in this field has become increasingly evident with the realization of the complex impact of global warming on these ecosystems. The Group for Aquatic Primary Productivity (GAP) recently ran an experimental workshop to address these questions. Around 90 delegates ran 10 days of experiments on systems ranging from open ocean phytoplankton, through macroalgae and seagrasses to salterns. Issues raised included the comparison of techniques currently available as well as measurements of net and gross photosynthesis and respiration in these systems. It is intended that this symposium would provide a forum for the presentation and discussion of these results.
Organizers: Stefan Bertilsson, Limnology/Dept. of Ecology & Evolution, Uppsala University, email@example.com; Katherine D. McMahon, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin-, firstname.lastname@example.org
Multiple recent studies in both freshwater and marine habitats have shown that the composition of pelagic microbial communities is dynamic over seasonal scales and that microbial communities as well as individual populations may change in response to hydrodynamic-, as well as other type of disturbance events. Also microbial driven processes seem to vary dramatically over days as well as seasons. This session will bring together aquatic scientists with an interest in these dynamic changes. We invite contributions related to the ecological and evolutionary consequences of this dynamic behavior as well as its role in controlling biogeochemical cycling of biologically active elements. We also welcome presentations focused on identifying and understanding the principal external drivers of dynamic change in aquatic microbial communities and technological advances in the field of microbial sensors for in situ deployment.
Organizers: Thomas Weisse, Institute of Limnology of the Austrian Acad. Sci., Mondsee, Austria, email@example.com; Guntram Weithoff, Dept. Ecology & Ecosystem Modeling, Univ. of Potsdam, Germany, firstname.lastname@example.org
Anoxic marine and freshwater environments, deep-sea hydrothermal vents, hot sulfidic freshwater springs, acid mining lakes and acid rivers are examples of extreme aquatic habitats with strongly reduced biodiversity. These environments harbor highly specialized microbial biota. The organisms thriving in extreme habitats may be relicts of an ancient community, highly specialized new colonizers, or they may take refuge from otherwise superior competitors that are less tolerant to the harsh environmental conditions. The goal of this session is to explore the specific survival strategies of the adapted organisms, relative to the role of the habitat that may act as a filter, allowing only those organisms with certain predispositions to pass and prosper. While several molecular inventories of the prokaryote and eukaryote organisms dwelling in extreme environments were published recently, little is known on their fitness-related survival strategies. Accordingly, we invite especially theoretically committed, process-oriented studies for this session.
Organizers: Anya Waite, University of Western Australia, Anya.Waite@uwa.edu.au; Amazia Genin, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, email@example.com; Ryan Lowe, University of Western Australia, firstname.lastname@example.org; Greg Ivey, University of Western Australia, Greg.Ivey@uwa.edu.au
This session will focus broadly on the cross-boundary processes in shallow coastal ecosystems, including coral reefs, kelp forests and sea-grass beds. Physical and biogeochemical processes change markedly as oceanic waters flow over these topographically controlled benthic ecosystems, frequently affecting key characteristics of both the benthic community and the surrounding ocean. These processes pose special challenges for investigators, who must contend with highly localized physics driving rapid fluxes, and strong benthic-pelagic coupling. In this session we will discuss some of the latest developments in reef-ocean dynamics where we consider such systems as a unified, coupled environment. Invited are studies of the above processes, especially (however not limited to) those addressing the effects of boundary currents, topography, waves, planktivory, nutrient uptake and release, and larval transport.
A central question in aquatic ecology is how much the variation in community composition can be explained by environmental factors vs. spatial or temporal variability across ecosystems or across various taxonomic levels. We would like to bring together scientists who try to explain or predict diversity patterns from contextual parameters on various scales, especially with regard to aquatic microbes, but results from research on other taxa are also welcome. This session will offer a platform for presenting and discussing current methods and strategies that best improve our understanding of natural ecosystems, from exploration and explanation of diversity patterns, to predictive ecological modeling. A specific emphasis will be given to ecological modeling of multispecies distribution in their environmental context and will offer examples of ecological insights obtained from complex datasets. The session is hosted by the International Census of Marine Microbes, a Census of Marine Life project.
The past decade has seen significant conceptual and technological advances in the field of biological-hydrodynamical research. Ecologists have acquainted themselves with fluid dynamics theory. Equipment to measure flow velocities and turbulence have become standard in aquatic ecology. Conversely, physicists have come to recognise the interaction between biota and ambient current as a challenging field, with not just local effects, but with ecosystem-wide relevance. Experiments in this field are generally limited to laboratory set-ups, such as flumes and wave tanks. These experiments yield information on processes acting on a spatial scale of centimetres to metres and temporal scales of seconds to days. Even the largest experimental facilities cannot encompass processes acting on ecosystem scale and experiments of more than a couple of weeks are generally not feasible. Linking processes acting on spatial and temporal scales that differ in orders of magnitude is currently a major challenge. E.g. to what extent can the filtration activity of individual mussels affect local flow patterns and ecosystem-scale circulation patterns? To what extent does the interaction between aquatic plant canopies and flow determine the intertidal landscape? This session invites papers investigating the links between processes acting at different scales, either experimentally, observationally or through modelling.
Populations are generally studied in ecosystems where they develop their own dynamics when interacting with other populations. Oceanographers have adopted this approach to link aquatic ecology with biogeochemistry and physics. Migrations and dispersals of individuals are taken into account by enlarging the spatio-temporal scale of the study. However, the many difficulties encountered for defining an appropriate geographic domain and that also encompasses several scales of variations for studying the dynamics led to using approaches built on metacommunities, metaecosystems and seascapes instead. This is a relatively new conceptual framework for quantitative investigations of interconnected local populations at several scales of variations. It represents a new challenge for marine ecologists who want to encompass the complexity necessary to understand either the effects of local and regional disturbances on marine ecosystems, or the effect of different conservation programs (e.g. definition of Marine Protected Areas) within a set of habitats. This session will bring together several different fields, including population genetics, field experiments and biophysical and theoretical modeling, in order to address questions about how connectivity can vary in metapopulations and metacommunities, how connectivity controls patterns of biodiversity and affects adaptation abilities of marine organisms in a changing environment, and how metacommunities may evolve.
An important issue in ecology is to understand the dynamics of complex trophic systems as a result of the direct interactions between pairs of species. Predator-prey interactions (or, more generally, the interactions between consumers and their resources) are the defining modules in aquatic food webs but it is a longstanding, contentious question whether analyses of small subsets of species can provide insights that are relevant to larger communities and ecosystems. In this session we bring together studies that investigate the mechanisms and dynamics of predator-prey relationships with the explicit goal of gaining insight into the functioning of larger aquatic communities. It is becoming increasingly clear that the interaction between predator and prey is a complex behavioral, community-based process that is most often inadequately described by a simplistic predator-eats-prey-item approach. Possible complications include the specific nature of the prey uptake by the predator (form of functional response, predator-dependence, prey switching), the internal structure of the interacting populations (age, stage, or genetic), the existence of additional non-trophic interactions (inducible defenses, swarming, vertical migration) and the spatial structure of the environment. To our session we welcome theoretical and empirical contributions from both marine and freshwater systems that adopt a differentiated, mechanistic approach to modular predator-prey interactions and demonstrate how the specific nature of the predator-prey relationship impacts community dynamics.
Pelagic food webs are dynamic systems with their structure and function determined both by internal mechanisms such as the biological properties of the organisms, as well as by external forcing by abiotic processes such as nutrients, light, and mixing. The biology covers size scales from viruses to whales and time scales ranging from those of photon capture in photosynthesis to those of evolution. The result is complex adaptive systems, the properties of which are central, not only to our basic understanding of pelagic ecosystems, but also to the ocean's interaction with the climate system and their applied aspects such as fisheries and pollution. Talks are invited that focus on system aspects, such as e.g. how different tropic levels are connected, how organism life strategies interact with system properties, or how biogeochemistry interacts with food web features. Modeling aspects, such as e.g how one can describe systems covering large ranges in time and space scales, are also welcomed.
Dramatic new evidence of spatial and temporal patterns in microbial plankton distributions has emerged from genetic studies. Increasingly this data has revealed regular temporal patterns in microbial community structure, vertical patterns of stratification in populations, and evidence for biogeographical variation. The observation that the major microbial plankton clades have diverged into ecotypes is powerful evidence that selection is creating functionally and genetically unique entities that exploit environmental variation with specific adaptations. Metagenomic evidence is providing a rich source of insight into the patterns of natural microbial community variation in the oceans. In this session we propose to gather scientists interested in genetic and biogeochemical aspects microbial plankton community variation, with an emphasis on defining principles and patterns that characterize microbial community variation over broad scales of time and space.
The observation that managed ecosystems often fail to respond smoothly to changing pressures lead to the drawing of parallels between the behaviour of ecological systems and other complex systems with non-linear dynamics. Evidence that aquatic ecosystems, both marine and freshwater, often experience abrupt changes in response to pressures ranges now across an entire plethora of issues, including responses of fish populations, corals, plankton communities, ice cover and other ecosystem components and processes to climate change and direct anthropogenic pressures, the responses of calcifying organisms to acidification, and the loss of benthic vegetation and the development of hypoxia in responses to increased nutrient inputs, Indeed, The capacity to anticipate regime shifts, predict the thresholds and tipping points of the pressures conducive to these changes, and understanding the traits that render ecosystem components and processes prone to non-linear behaviour represent a fundamental direction of research within aquatic sciences, with important fundamental and applied implications. This Special Session welcomes contributions from participants willing to report their research pertaining to the theoretical framework underlying the occurence of non-linear behaviour in aquatic ecosystems and the presence of thresholds or tipping points and the associated regime shifts, new approaches to detect and examine this behaviour, case studies examining these phenomena in particular aquatic ecosystems, and the consequences of thresholds and regime shifts for the management of aquatic ecosystems and the formulation of policies to conserve and use them sustainably.
Seagrass ecosystems are distributed around the world, where they provide important ecological functions as well as ecosystem services for the human society. However, seagrasses rank amongst the most threatened ecosystems on earth. Seagrass research is currently growing rapidly, stimulated by an increasing interest in conserving these important marine habitats before degradation. Whereas substantial research efforts have been made to elucidate the causes of seagrass habitat deterioration, losses of ecosystem functions, conditions for habitat and functions recovery, and mechanisms behind the changes often remain unclear or unexplored. This session seeks papers investigating the dynamics and functions of seagrass ecosystems from small (e.g. individual shoot level, microbial aspects) to large scale (e.g. landscape formations), including processes (e.g. physiological measures, population dynamics, biogeochemical cycling, recovery and decline) and pools (e.g. nutrient storage, organic matter, CO2 sequestration). The goal of this session is to expand the current knowledge on seagrass ecosystem dynamics and functions.
Organizers: Carol Robinson, University of East Anglia, email@example.com; Des Barton, Instituto Investigaciones Marinas (CSIC), firstname.lastname@example.org; Doug Wallace, IFM-GEOMAR, email@example.com
Coastal upwelling regions significantly influence oceanic biogeochemistry and atmospheric chemistry. The input of nutrient rich deep water creates some of the ocean’s most productive systems; representing < 1% of the surface area but 20% of the global fish catch. They are zones of high nitrous oxide and methane emissions where elevated primary production and a shift in plankton community structure also enhance dimethylsulphide and halocarbon production. Photodegradation of upwelled dissolved organic matter influences bacterial activity and the production of climate relevant gases. Upwelling filaments represent an important carbon flux to the open ocean still absent in global biogeochemical models. The intensity and timing of coastal upwelling is influenced by wind and current patterns yet the response of these systems to potential climatic shifts, and the impact this might have on biogeochemical fluxes, is unclear. In the last 5 years numerical modelling of upwelling systems, including their biogeochemical components, has progressed significantly and several major observational initiatives have been executed under the auspices of international programmes like SOLAS and IMBER. This session will bring together aspects of the dynamics, structure and functioning of coastal upwelling systems including ocean physics, air-sea exchange, biogeochemistry, photochemistry and microbial community structure and activity.
Organizers: Catherine Legrand, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences, University of Kalmar, Sweden, firstname.lastname@example.org; Michael Steinke, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Essex , UK, email@example.com
Aquatic chemical ecology among pelagic plankton communities is a recent, but dynamic and rapidly developing field. This session will explore the role of chemical communication in aquatic microbial systems including protists and bacteria. Chemical communication may aid the location of prey, predators, food and partners, and may be used in allelopathic interactions and quorum sensing. Submissions are encouraged on topics such as the chemical nature of bioactive substances (deterrents, allelochemicals), the effects of secondary metabolites on target organisms (competitors, grazers, pathogens) and how these effects may impact larger scale patterns such as food-web structure, community composition, rates and pathways of biogeochemical cycles. Due to the multi-disciplinary nature of infochemistry research, this session will be of interest to investigators in aquatic biochemistry, molecular biology, ecology, biogeochemistry, limnology and oceanography.
Organizers: George I. Matsumoto, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, firstname.lastname@example.org; Leslie Peart, Consortium for Ocean Leadership - JOI Division, email@example.com; Liesl Hotaling, The Beacon Institute, lhotaling <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Free choice learning is education that is self-motivated, guided by the learner's desires and needs, and is the most common form of life-long learning. It happens while surfing the internet, in aquaria, science museums, listening to radio ortelevision, and in many other venues. It is also exceptionally effective at inspiring new scientists and in promoting the importance of science and its central role in society. This session will solicit contributions on free choice learning activities, such as Distinguished Lecturer Series, podcasts, and exhibits. Presentations that focus on the definition and context of free- choice learning experiences, methods for gauging activity effectiveness and impact, and on those programs that provide create interactions between scientists, educators, and the general public are of special interest.
Organizers: Lars Stemmann, University of Paris VI, email@example.com; François Carlotti, C.N.R.S. Université de la Méditerranée, UMR 6535, firstname.lastname@example.org; Meng Zhou, University of Massachusetts Boston, email@example.com
Size structures of aquatic organisms from phytoplankton, zooplankton to fish have widely been accepted in studying their physiology, behavior, population dynamics, trophic interactions. The strength of the biological pump depends also on the size distribution of plankton detritus. Advances in acoustic and optical sensors and imaging analysis tools have significantly increased our capability to measure sizes and abundances of organisms and particles in aquatic ecosystems; and mathematical models have also been developed for individual physiological and population change rates, and biomass flow between trophic levels. As we are expecting broader spatial and longer temporal coverage of size spectra from current and future surveys and monitoring programs, there are urgent needs for integrating field surveys, laboratory experiments and models and for developing analytical methods for analyzing distributions and process rates of aquatic organisms. This session specifically call for papers presenting original observations of size spectra from primary producers to top predators including their detritus and theoretical and empirical models. Papers on analytical methods for interpreting field data will particularly be encouraged.
Organizers: Filip Meysman, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), firstname.lastname@example.org; Peter Berg, University of Virginia, email@example.com; Jack Middelburg, Netherlands institute of Ecology, firstname.lastname@example.org
The surface layer of marine sediments is recognized to be a biogeochemical hotspot, which plays a key role in the cycling of elements in the ocean and global biogeochemical cycles. The biogeochemistry of marine sediment ecosystems is complex, because it is controlled by an interplay of many different factors, ranging from physics (diffusion and pore flow), over chemistry (redox, acid-base, precipation/dissolution), to microbiology (aerobic respiration, denitrification, sulfate reduction, etc) and benthic biology (bioturbation, bio-irrigation, respiration). This session will explore all aspects of this `entangled web´ of biogeochemical processes, with particular emphasis on the quantification of rates, both internal process rates (e.g. O2 consumption, denitrification, bio-irrigation) as well as fluxes to the overlying water column. In recent years, there have been new developments on both the measurement and modeling sides. Submissions from both perspectives, based on laboratory, field, and computational studies are all encouraged.
The 4th Internacional Polar Year (IPY, March 2007 – March 2009) is taking place at a time when climate warming is clearly affecting polar regions. Warming rates and the associated ice loss appears to be accelerating in the Arctic and some regions of Antarctica. Provided the critical role of ice cover in determining the functioning and traits of polar aquatic ecosystems, marine and freshwater, rapid ice loss is expected to severely impact these ecosystems at multiple levels. Ice loss will affect the radiative balance of polar waters, affecting their thermal and light, including UV, environments. Ice loss will intensify air-water interactions in polar ecosystems, and will also severey impact all species, from microbes to megafauna, depending on ice as habitat. Warming together with ice loss will affect the key biological and biogeochemical processes supporting aquatic polar ecosystems, and may induce ecological regime shifts in these ecosystems, derived from posible losses of polar biodiversity together with an increased vulnerability to invasions from exotic species. This session aims at providing a forum to present and discuss, both through oral presentations and postres, results on the Impacts of Climate Warming on Polar Ecosystems, allowing scientists concerned with benthic, pelagic, freshwater and marine ecosystems to interact and exchange information. This session is financially supported by the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation.
Organizers: Klaus Jürgens, Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, email@example.com; Gordon T.Taylor, Stony Brook University, Marine Science Research Center, firstname.lastname@example.org
Oxygen-deficient conditions within the water column can be found in many aquatic systems, for example the oxygen minimum zone near marine upwelling areas, marine basins and fjords with restricted water circulation (e.g., Cariaco Basin, Black Sea, Baltic Sea) and in stratified eutrophic lakes. Redox gradients found in these waters are sites of important microbially-mediated element transformations (e.g., within the nitrogen- sulfur and trace metal cycling), of novel metabolic pathways, and of significant chemoautotrophic production (dark CO2 fixation). Recent research has revealed many new insights into the composition and functions of the microbial communities in these systems, including the identification of microbial key players and major functional groups. However, there remain many open questions, e.g., with regard to the regulating mechanisms, biotic interactions and responsible redox reactions driving the system. We want to encourage contributions from marine and freshwater research on microbial ecology in suboxic to anoxic pelagic environments, particularly studies that link microbial community structure with biogeochemical processes.
Understanding trophic state of aquatic ecosystems requires a reference or baseline, yet some regions have few reference sites. Approaches taken to determine reference conditions for nutrients are varied and could include analyses of similar pristine sites, modeling, or assessment of biological indicators. The best approach may depend upon the aquatic ecosystem being considered (e.g., stream, lake, wetland, coastal marine) and available data. While trophic state is directly linked to functional properties (e.g., metabolism, nutrient retention) of these ecosystems, consideration of these parameters has seldom been included in evaluation procedures or as part of the characterization of reference conditions. This session will explore determination of reference conditions and the different perspectives used to assess trophic state. Special emphasis will be placed on the consideration of nutrient effects on functional parameters as indicators of potential ecosystem services and how these parameters link to biotic integrity.
Organizers: Dietmar Straile, Limnological Institute, University of Konstanz, email@example.com; Karsten Rinke, Limnological Institute, University of Konstanz, firstname.lastname@example.org; Frank Peeters, Limnological Institute, University of Konstanz, email@example.com
The spring bloom is a period of vital importance in aquatic ecosystems for species ranging from phytoplankton and zooplankton to fish larvae. Global warming will either change the phenology of the spring bloom or at least result into altered environmental conditions, e.g. water temperature, light availability, during the bloom. This will most likely pose a serious challenge for species adapted to the present phenology and to the conditions during the spring bloom. Additionally, these changes will also alter biotic interactions during this time period. In this session, we aim at bringing together work from both, marine and freshwater systems, as well as studies addressing this topic with analysis of field data, experiments, and simulation models.
The hyporheic zone is the ecotone between surface waters and groundwaters and is characterized by steep physical and chemical gradients and, in some cases, intense microbial activity leading researchers to examine the potential of the hyporheic zone in pollution attenuation. The hyporheic zone also hosts an assemblage of metazoans that may be derived from both surface and groundwaters. Until recently there has been a focus on research into the hydrology, chemistry and microbiology of the hyporheic zone. There has been less emphasis on the ecology of metazoans that inhabit this zone despite their potential role in modulating microbial activity via grazing and bioturbation. This session will attempt to redress this imbalance by focusing on metazoan hyporheic ecology in order to develop a better understanding of the drivers of assemblage composition and abundance.
Organizers: Sergi Sabater, University Girona, firstname.lastname@example.org; Anna Romani, University Girona, email@example.com; Klement Tockner, Institut für Gewässerökologie u. Binnenfischei Berlin (IGB), firstname.lastname@example.org
Temporary streams and rivers are a common phenomenon in arid and semiarid areas, and they are expected to expand in space and time due to increasing water stress. As a consequence, hydrologic discontinuities will cause major shifts in ecosystem processes and biodiversity, both during the aquatic and terrestrial phases. Water flow interruption, at the surface and in the hyporheic zone, determines the quantity and quality of organic materials transported, including its biodegradability, and therefore their potential use by microorganisms. Autotrophic production may be a source of available organic matter, especially during low flow episodes. These interruptions in connectivity may have implications on the biodiversity and the metabolism of entire river networks, which may again well lead to major changes in the ecosystem services they provide.
Organizers: Alessia M. Rodriguez y Baena, Mediterranean Science Commission (CIESM), email@example.com; Gert J. de Lange, Department of Earth Sciences – Geochemistry, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrech, firstname.lastname@example.org; Cecile Guieu, CNRS, LOV Villefranche, email@example.com; Emin Ozsoy, Institute of Marine Sciences, Middle East Technical University, Erdemli-Mer, firstname.lastname@example.org; Richard Sempéré, CNRS, LMGEM-COM, email@example.com; Evangelos Papathanassiou, Hellenic Centre for Marine Research (HCMR), Greece, firstname.lastname@example.org
The Mediterranean and Black Seas are among the most specific and vulnerable marine ecosystems on Earth. It is therefore likely that global change will affect these semi-enclosed basins more rapidly and intensively than the world ocean. In addition, these seas are shared by many neighboring countries whose important industrial, cultural, and regulatory practices differ greatly. Multi-lateral cooperation, coupled with integrative ecosystem approaches, is thus a condition sine qua non to track and understand environmental changes in these regions. Such is the long practice of CIESM (the Mediterranean Science Commission), convener of this session together with the French CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) and INSU (Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers). This session will give priority to papers stemming from pluri-disciplinary, multi-lateral scientific initiatives on signals of change in the Mediterranean and Black Seas, including key programmes coordinated by CIESM, the CNRS/INSU project MERMEX, and the EC project SESAME. Topics will cover inter alia: present and past variations in circulation patterns, changes in salinity and temperature, shifts in marine food webs, introduction of alien species, emerging chemical contaminants, and biological-pump responses to climate change.
Organizers: Carlo Nike Bianchi, DIPTERIS, Università di Genova, email@example.com; Patrice Francour, E.A. 4228 ECOMERS, Ecosystèmes COtiers Marins Et Réponses aux Stress, Univ., Patrice.FRANCOUR&unice.fr; Joaquim Garrabou, UMR 6540 DIMAR, Centre d'Océanologie de Marseille, firstname.lastname@example.org; Paolo Guidetti, Laboratorio di Zoologia e Biologia Marina, Dipartimento di Biologia, Univer, email@example.com; Mark Ohman, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UCSD, firstname.lastname@example.org
During the last decades modifications of the fauna and flora have been observed in the Western Mediterranean and the Adriatic: records of new thermophilic species, mass mortality events and changes in bathymetric distributions. A relationship to global change or at least the present warming of sea water has been frequently proposed to explain the patterns observed. This session will be devoted to contributions on the present and near-future effects of climate change in Mediterranean benthic and pelagic coastal ecosystems. The key questions that will be addressed are: (1) what are the modifications in the abiotic environment (mainly temperature and pH) and biotic interactions? (2) what are the tools available and directions for future research efforts to improve the existing predictive framework? (3) what could be the synergistic effects between climate change and other anthropogenic disturbances linked to global change, particularly overfishing and invasive or Lessepsian species? Contributions should cover studies on hydrology, ecology, genetics, eco-physiology or oceanographic and ecological modelling. The final goal of this session is to promote sustainable management and conservation strategies based on sound knowledge on the effects of the current and expected warming in the Mediterranean, in particular, and global change, in general. This session is financially supported by the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation.
Land-ocean interactions in the coastal zone are increasingly important in the current era of global change. The synergetic effects of natural and human changes in the coastal zones are complex and the consequences are difficult to predict and manage. Coastal zones are increasingly vulnerable to global change. Coastal zones as heterogenous, relatively small but highly productive, dynamic and sensitive systems that provide a significant proportion of the life support systems of most societies. The session will focus on the human dimension and scenarios of change in the coastal zone, the area of the earth's surface where land, ocean and atmosphere meet and interact. The session aims to address the primary issues of sustainable human use of coastal systems with vulnerability of coasts and risks for human uses playing a key role. Main foci will be: * Vulnerability of coastal systems and hazards to human societies sets the stage for the subsequent themes that address special parts of the wider coastal domain. * Implications of global change and land- and sea-use on coastal development focuses on spatial, temporal and organizational issues of how change in land- and sea-use influence natural resources availability and natural systems sustainability. * Anthropogenic influences on the river catchment and coastal zone interaction address river catchment-based drivers/pressures that influence and change the coastal domain. * Fate and transformation of materials in coastal and shelf waters focus on the cycling of carbon, nutrients and sediments in the coastal and shelf waters and their exchange with the ocean. * Coastal system sustainability by managing land-ocean interactions
Microorganisms are a crucial component of the biosphere, catalysing processes sustaining all life on Earth. They are the engines of the biogeochemical cycles. Studies on ecosystem performance are principally closely linked to the determination of microbial communities function. Microorganisms in aquatic environments have been understudied largely due to the low culturability of environmental microorganisms and difficulties in their identification and functional studies. Recent advances in molecular methods, high-throuput techniques for processing large numbers of biologically complex samples, and new characterisation methods for microbial communities are providing opportunities for studies of microorganism community structure and function. The techniques in molecular biology, such as 16S and/or 18S rRNA and ITS gene cloning and sequencing, permit characterisation of microbial community structure as a whole. These PCR-based methods are however known to be biased and therefore it is important to develop new methods to relate separate cell functioning in the environment without previous cultivation. On the other hand, new cultivation techniques are also needed, especially for fast characterisation of microbial physiology in environmental samples. The final goal of these two mainstream approaches should be relating cultivation techniques to the molecular based techniques. Because of the prominent importance of microorganism functioning in the aquatic ecosystems, this session welcomes researchers which would present research on the: new methods of the cultivation as well as molecular detection and activity analyses in vitro and in situ of microbial communities, microbial community structure changes due to environmental changes, interaction between different microorganisms in aquatic ecosystems, and investigations of biofilms including mat communities structure and composition.
Coastal nutrient budgets, such as those developed in the LOICZ project, have been useful in assessing the relationships between nutrient fluxes and the ecosystem metabolism of coastal waters worldwide, and are proving to be helpful in assessing the impacts of coastal activities on water quality. On the terrrestrial side, simple accounting methodologies are proving useful in assessing the relationships between nutrient loads to coastal waters and human activities in watersheds. This session presents ongoing work in these areas, including new methodologies, and applications of these approaches to the science and management of coastal waters.
Coastal ecosystems, at the land-ocean-atmosphere interphase, are driven by the variability of forcing variables (river discharge, wind and waves, atmospheric deposition, oceanic water entrainment, coastal morphology, total nutrient load and composition,...). Anthropogenic influence on coastal ecosystems further affect the drivers. An integrated approach to the study of this physical-biological variability further increases our understanding of the dynamics, biogeochemistry and diversity of coastal ecosystems and their prediction into the short-term and long-term future as framed by global changes. We welcome pluridisciplinary presentations that address the variability of coastal planktonic ecosystem drivers with special emphasis on mechanical energy and organic and inorganic nutrient load. Experimental studies, time series analysis and modelling with projection aims are encouraged.
River networks receive nutrients from the catchment and are thus to a large extent influenced by human activities. The negative consequences of increased nutrient concentrations in rivers are considerable and lead to eutrophication. Chemical transformations of nutrients along their transport pathway through the environment often lead to various interactions between different elements. The connectivity between riverine subsystems such as wetlands, riparian zones, hyporheic zones and the main channel controls transport, transformation, retention and removal of nutrients in rivers and, consequently, the impact on coastal areas. Here, we are interested to explore the fate of nutrients as influenced by different pathways, and their environmental control at different scales from the biofilm to the landscape. Within this session, we intend to contribute three aspects to the growing scientific debate: 1. how nutrient transformation is linked to hydromorphology 2. how nutrient transformation is linked over scales 3. how restoration activities influence pathways of nutrient transformation The proposed session invites contributions from various disciplines and should include topics such as landscape heterogeneity and land-use impacts on river ecosystems, in-stream nutrient transport and transformation, and the impacts of river management and restoration on nutrient cycling.
Organizers: Alexandra Z. Worden, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, CA 95039, U.S.A., email@example.com; Fabrice Not, Station Biologique de Roscoff, CNRS, Université Paris 06, UMR7144, Evolutio, firstname.lastname@example.org
Protistan microbes play many roles in aquatic ecosystems. Autotrophic protists (phytoplankton) are major oceanic primary producers and heterotrophic protists play predatory roles in a variety of systems. In addition, more complex trophic modes such as mixotrophy or symbiotic and parasitic interactions appear to be more common than originally thought. Expansion of data on protists, their diversity, functional roles and ecological impacts is occurring at a rapid rate. This expansion has been expedited by the advent of multiple molecular approaches to exploring these populations. For example, research over the last several years has revealed tremendous diversity of even the smallest protists, the picoeukaryotes (<2-3 micrometer diameter). This session seeks to bring together scientists employing different approaches and to highlight the forefront of knowledge on aquatic protists. The overall session goal will be interrelating targeted in situ methods, such as FISH and qPCR, culture based studies on physiology through to genomics, as well as methods exploring protists within the context of the broader community such as flow cytometry, clone libraries and metagenomics. Contributions from research on either freshwater or marine systems are welcome. The session will facilitate two major advances. First, taken together, this knowledge will allow us to synthesize a more refined view of protistan roles in microbial food webs and carbon cycling. Second, the synthesis will identify areas requiring development, including needed innovations for addressing unsolved questions on microbial interactions that involve unicellular eukaryotes. This request is for an oral session with an associated poster session.
Organizers: Iris C. Anderson, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, email@example.com; Linda C. Schaffner, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, firstname.lastname@example.org; Kristina Sundback, Inst. för marin ekologi, email@example.com
Shallow water habitats are important and highly productive components of marine, estuarine and freshwater ecosystems. A key feature of these habitats is high light availability, which makes it possible for a variety of primary producers to contribute to productive food webs, to regulate nutrient cycling and, thereby, influence water and sediment quality. Responses of shallow water habitats to drivers such as light and nutrient or sediment loading is dependent not only on the nature of the primary producer, benthic and nektonic communities, but also on physical parameters such as residence time and susceptibility to resuspension events. Given their proximity to shorelines, shallow water habitats are also increasingly susceptible to human influence. The unique character of these areas has major implications for conservation and restoration of biodiversity and ecosystem services. For this session we seek contributions from marine, estuarine and freshwater ecologists, biogeochemists, and modelers that will help us to better understand commonalities in the ecological and ecosystem processes of shallow water habitats, as well as contributions that explore relationships among aspects such as structure, function, environment and human effects.
Organizers: Christopher Francis, Stanford University, firstname.lastname@example.org; Karen Casciotti, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, email@example.com; Erik Zinser, University of Tennessee, firstname.lastname@example.org
Microbes play a critical role in the biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and metals in aquatic systems. Due to the complex interactions between microbes and their physical/chemical environment, a multitude of complementary approaches are required to fully assess the diversity, abundance, and activity of microbial communities. For example, recent breakthroughs in our understanding of the microorganisms involved in both archaeal and anaerobic ammonium oxidation have emerged from a combination of 13C- and 15N-based tracer studies, analysis of lipid biomarkers, and molecular techniques including fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), metagenomics, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. This session will emphasize the breadth of experimental and computational approaches currently being employed by microbial ecologists and (bio)geochemists to link aquatic microbial communities (or functional guilds) to environmental gradients and/or ecosystem function. Laboratory investigations of environmentally-relevant microbes and the development of novel techniques to assess in situ microbial activities are also encouraged.
Organizers: Adam Kustka, Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, email@example.com; Sonya Dyhrman, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, firstname.lastname@example.org; Bethany Jenkins, University of Rhode Island, email@example.com
The ability to take up nutrients or to minimize nutrient requirements are key traits that may influence the success of different functional groups of phytoplankton. The resultant effects on net primary productivity and community composition should, in turn, impact higher trophic levels and biogeochemical cycles. Significant advances are being made towards unraveling how different phytoplankton can out-compete others for limiting nutrients. This has been facilitated by the availability of whole genome sequences of a growing number of model organisms as well as expression profiling methods on unsequenced organisms. But the ecosystem level effects of these differences in situ are less clear. We are proposing a session that will bring together diverse fields of oceanography, molecular biology, physiology, ecology and biogeochemistry dealing with either mechanisms of nutrient uptake or differences in elemental requirements for growth. We invite contributions that address a) the molecular underpinnings of nutrient acquisition, b) physiological differences in nutrient requirements and c) how differences in nutrient acquisition mechanisms and/or requirements may affect ecosystem structure and biogeochemical cycles.
Organizers: J. Malcolm Shick, University of Maine, School of Marine Sciences, USA, firstname.lastname@example.org; Mark L. Wells, University of Maine, School of Marine Sciences, USA, email@example.com; Charles G. Trick, University of Western Ontario, CA, firstname.lastname@example.org; Walt Dunlap, Australian Institute of Marine Sciences, Townsville, QLD Australia, email@example.com
The extent of coral bleaching is increasing worldwide. Although the specific causes of bleaching are unclear, they often are attributed broadly to global climate change. Indeed there are demonstrated linkages between bleaching and the combined effect of elevated temperature and bright sunlight, but these factors alone are not sufficient to explain bleaching. Spatial patterns of unbleached corals within otherwise widely bleached reef systems indicate that other synergistic factors are essential for bleaching to occur. These synergistic considerations include biological factors (e.g., zooxanthella diversity) and conceivably also physical or chemical processes. But while there is a considerable literature describing laboratory and field studies on bleaching relationships in the context of the physiology and community structure of corals and their symbiotic zooxanthellae, there has been less emphasis on how physical and chemical oceanographic processes might exacerbate coral bleaching. This session aims both to highlight the diversity of biological, physical and chemical mechanisms associated with coral bleaching and to encourage discussion of additional environmental and oceanographic changes that contribute to coral bleaching.
Organizers: Kristen Buck, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, firstname.lastname@example.org; Maeve Lohan, SEOES University of Plymouth, email@example.com; Kathy Barbeau, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, firstname.lastname@example.org
It is well known that planktonic microorganisms in the ocean mediate the chemistry and cycling of biologically significant trace metals. The same metals exert an influence on the growth and distributions of these organisms and their cycling of the major nutrients (e.g., carbon and nitrogen). The field of trace metal oceanography has come a long way over the last two decades toward understanding the biological and chemical cycling of these elements. We anticipate that the interdisciplinary nature of large international research programs like GEOTRACES and CLIVAR will enhance our understanding of trace metal biogeochemical processes. To date, however, the role of biological organisms and community structures on the reactivity and speciation (redox and organic) cycles of trace metals remains poorly constrained. We encourage submissions from the molecular to the ocean basin scale for all aspects of biological-chemical feedbacks in trace metal cycling, including biological ligand production, selective uptake of trace metal species by marine organisms, and biologically mediated reduction-oxidation processes.
Organizers: Christopher A. Klausmeier, Michigan State University, email@example.com; Elena Litchman, Michigan State University, firstname.lastname@example.org; Jef Huisman, University of Amsterdam, email@example.com
Trait-based approaches are increasingly used in ecology. They suggest new ways to understand how communities assemble and the effect of biodiversity on ecosystem processes without getting bogged down with taxonomic details. They also provide an alternative framework to discrete functional groups for modeling plankton dynamics. Furthermore, trait-based approaches may generate insight into the adaptive significance and evolutionary optimization of traits (e.g., by adaptive dynamics, genetic algorithms). This session will bring together theoretical and empirical research in this area across different functional groups (phytoplankton, zooplankton, and bacterioplankton).
Organizers: Kay Bidle, Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, firstname.lastname@example.org; Assaf Vardi, Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, email@example.com
Recent discoveries of cellular mechanisms regulating phytoplankton cell death highlight important loss processes independent of grazing and help to explain how an average of 50% of global primary production flows through microbial foodwebs. Now recognized as a fundamental mortality mechanism in evolutionary diverse aquatic microbes, autocatalytic programmed cell death (PCD) is triggered by a variety of adverse environmental stresses, such as nutrient deprivation, allelopathy, and viral infection. Its observed connection with transparent exopolymeric particle production and aggregate formation is suggestive of an intriguing mechanistic influence on the vertical flux of organic matter. Given that phytoplankton sense environmental cues and activate PCD via cell signaling pathways, chemical signals (infochemicals) not only serve to mediate biotic interactions, but may shape community structures and large-scale processes. This special session provides a platform to present new findings on the environmental and physiological triggers of stress, chemical defense, and death, and assess their ecological and evolutionary drivers. Recent advances in microbial genomics and the development of genetic tools provide an unprecedented opportunity to elucidate cellular strategies employed by phytoplankton interacting with their changing environment. It is hoped that such a consortium will provide an opportunity to elucidate algal bloom dynamics in a novel context.
Whole genome sequencing of marine microalgae began less than 5 years ago, yet already phenomenal insights have been gained. From only a handful of genome and EST projects, a better understanding of core metabolic processes and cellular features in these diverse organisms has been reached. An incredible range of metabolic strategies continues to be revealed as more taxa are added to the sequencing queue. We invite presentations and posters on studies that utilize this new genome and EST information to generate hypotheses about the link between the success of various microalgal groups and aquatic ecosystem processes. For example, studies investigating biogeochemical cycles, primary metabolism, cell-cell interactions, cellular defense and cell death. We encourage the coupling of genomic/transcript information with classical measurements in both lab and field studies. Field studies that investigate ecological processes based on ribotype or single gene markers also welcome.
Terrestrial-derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) contributes substantially to the energetic basis of food webs in many freshwater environments, and its concentrations increased over the last decades. This session will address the changes of carbon transfer efficiency and food web structure along a gradient of increasing supply of external DOC relative to internal production of organic carbon. This encompasses aspects such as mechanisms of carbon uptake, types of microorganisms and functional groups involved in terrestrial carbon utilization, the diversity of organisms, the efficiency of allochthonous and autochthonous carbon transfer to higher trophic levels, and competitive interactions and feedback mechanisms within the food web. It also includes the role of mixotrophic organisms, which can be affected in multiple ways: as primary producers, as grazers of bacteria and potentially as consumers of DOC. The session will invite theoretical and modeling studies as well as laboratory experiments and field studies. Climate change influences numerous ecological processes, which mutually interact. For instance, increased temperature favors heterotrophic processes more strongly than photosynthesis and reduces growth efficiencies. The challenge is to identify the right questions for further studies to predict the consequences of increased terrestrial DOC import, temperature or hydrologic variability on DOC metabolism.
This session is a duplicate of Session 095 and will be combined during the scheduling process. Please submit to either session.
Organizers: Katrin Teubner, Essex University, Dept Biological Sciences, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester CO4 3, firstname.lastname@example.org; Thorsten Blenckner, Erken Laboratory, Dept Ecology and Evolution, Evolutionary Biology Centre, , email@example.com
P-limited growth of microbial communities is a common phenomenon studied for both environments, freshwater and ocean. It acts on different time scales described across research on aquatic systems from physiology, ecology to molecular genetics. Short-time incubation of phosphorus-uptake experiments is focused on the adjustment of microbial species to nano-pulsed environments and measures the kinetic response within minutes. Outgrow experiments in particular in the ocean are often directed to optimize growth conditions and are designed as fertilizing experiments with incubation times from hours to days. Studies on the alteration of phosphorus resources within seasons or decades are studied as the response to eutrophication and climatic change signals and highlight long-term trends of phosphorus availability for microbial communities in freshwater and ocean. The aim of this session is to summarize our current knowledge on the microbial response to changing phosphorus availability in freshwater and marine environments by a synopsis of research from short- to long-time scales.
Organizers: Christofer Troedsson, University of Bergen, Department of Biology, Box 7800 N-5020 Bergen, Norway, Christofer.Troedsson@bio.uib.no; José Luis Acuña, University of Oviedo. Departamento de Biología de Organismos y Sistemas. Ov, firstname.lastname@example.org
Gelatinous bodies have evolved in an impressing variety of zooplankton taxa. These animals exhibit brisk population dynamics and opportunistic lifestyles, causing plagues, invasions, and episodes of strong vertical flux of faeces and mucus with various socioeconomic impacts. However, despite their ecological success, the origin of gelatinous bodies is far from clear. The solution(s) to this mystery will require a synthesis of emerging (e.g. molecular ecology and systematics) and traditional (e.g. quantitative genetics, biomechanics) methodological approaches. We want to invite people to present data on the ecology of gelatinous zooplankton using new methodologies or approaches which have been extensively used in other types of organisms, but not on gelatinous zooplankton. We also welcome people presenting theoretical syntheses to stimulate an interdisciplinary discussion on the origin and function of gelatinous bodies.
Organizers: Dror Angel, University of Haifa, Israel, , email@example.com; Alenja Malej, Marine Biology Station, Slovenia, firstname.lastname@example.org ; Ahmet Kideys, Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution, Turkey, email@example.com
The frequency of gelatinous zooplankton blooms (mainly medusae and ctenophores) appears to have increased in recent years. Although it has been argued that this may be due to technological advances enabling us to monitor greater areas more frequently, it should be pointed out that some of these blooms are due to invasive species which are transported between different regions, mainly in ballast waters. Many of these blooms are labeled "nuisance" blooms because of the damage they incur upon fisheries, fishing gear, aquaculture, coastal industry and tourism. Population 'explosions' of gelatinous animals have been linked to climate change, ocean acidification, over-fishing, marine pollution and various other processes. This session will explore: (1) the causes of gelatinous zooplankton blooms, (2) their impacts on marine ecosystems and (3) mitigation methods, in particular for the invasive species.
Organizers: Robert H. Condon, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, 1208 Greate Rd, Gloucester Point, Vir, firstname.lastname@example.org; Gaby Gorsky, Laboratoire d’Oceanographie de Villefranche, Station Zoologique, BP 28, F-0, email@example.com; William M. Graham, Dauphin Island Sea Lab, 101 Bienville Blvd., Dauphin Island, Alabama, USA 3, firstname.lastname@example.org
Gelatinous zooplankton are a diverse group from ctenophores and cnidarians (medusae and siphonophores) to pelagic tunicates. Sudden outbreaks or ‘blooms’ of gelatinous zooplankton populations occur regularly in most coastal, estuarine and open-ocean ecosystems worldwide, and there is mounting evidence that such blooms are more frequent and intense in recent decades. Reasons are poorly understood, but given projected global anthropogenic and climatic influence they may dramatically alter planktonic food-web structure, stimulate microbial metabolism and phytoplankton production, and restrict fisheries production. In addition, little is known about what role blooms have on large-scale processes, such as carbon cycling and the fate of gelatinous zooplankton biomass. The objectives of this session are to present recent studies examining the impact of blooms on food-web structure, dynamics, and nutrient cycling. By holding this session in an international setting we also aim to stimulate discussions and establish future collaborations amongst the scientific community while identifying research priorities in gelatinous zooplankton ecology. Studies that are adopting a multidisciplinary approach, or are employing use of new techniques to explore planktonic food-web interactions, are encouraged to submit presentations to this session.
Organizers: Charles R. Goldman , Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of California, D, email@example.com; Michio Kumagai, Lake Biwa Environmental Research Institute, Otsu, Japan, Kumagaifirstname.lastname@example.org
The World Water and Climate Network (WWCN) was established at the World Water Forum II in Kyoto Japan in 2002 to assemble data on the various impacts of climatic change with emphasis on the global warming trend. The world population increase coupled with this warming of surface waters has threatened both the quantity and quality of current and future water supplies. Lake warming reduces frequency and depth of mixing and hypolimnetic oxygen, and promotes eutrophication as well as a variety of invasive plant and fish species. Escalating energy costs are certain to make the problem worse as we face a water and food shortage in many parts of the world. New approaches to better protect and manage the dwindling water supplies are essential for reducing the impact of this world water crisis.
Chemical speciation is fundamental to the aquatic geochemistry and bioavailability of various metals, and also affects the catalytic reactivity of various enzymes in the marine and freshwater systems. Examples are the control of the solubility of iron by interaction with organic ligands, possible enzymatic substitution of copper for iron in iron limited waters, and the requirement of zinc, cobalt, or cadmium for carbonic anhydrase. Important though these reactions are, much is to be learned for instance where equilibrium reactions are unbalanced by redox reactions, making reaction kinetics just as important as the equilibrium species in which the metal is supposed to occur. All these aspects will be welcomed for discussion at this session.
Organizers: Behzad Mostajir, Laboratoire Ecosystèmes lagunaires, UMR 5119, CNRS-Université Montpellier 2, Behzad.Mostajir@univ-montp2.fr; Télesphore Sime-Ngando , Laboratoire Microorganismes: Génome & Environnement, UMR CNRS 6023, Univers, Telesphore.SIME-NGANDO@univ-bpclermont.fr; John Dolan, Micobial Ecology and Biogeochemistry, Laboratoire d'Oceanographie de Villef, email@example.com
Reflecting the variety of topics addressed by Fereidoun Rassouladegan over the last 30 years, the session will include papers investigating all aspects of microbial food web from molecular to biogeochemical cycles, in oceanic waters, coastal areas, lagoons, fjords, estuaries and fresh waters. Presentations focusing on interactions between virus, bacteria, phytoplankton and protozoa, and how they modulate energy in the aquatic ecosystems, are especially welcome because they are the centerpiece of Fereidoun’s contributions to our knowledge of planktonic ecosystems.
Organizers: Marie Boyé, LEMAR, IUEM, Technopole de Brest-Iroise, France, firstname.lastname@example.org; H.J.W. De Baar, Department Ocean Ecosystems, University of Groningen, The Netherlands, email@example.com
Trace elements essential for life, notably iron (Fe), play a key role in marine ecosystems and climate. Isotopes are natural tracers and time-clocks in the sea. The international GEOTRACES program has its flying start in the International Polar Year (2007-2008). The unique quasi-synopsis of IPY-cruises with GEOTRACES issues has the potential to provide new insights into a wide range of ocean processes and dynamics in Polar Oceans. Furthermore multi-tracers approaches and intercalibration exercises achieved during the IPY-GEOTRACES is an important step forward towards the development of analytical techniques that are essential to improve our knowledge of ocean dynamics.
Organizers: Michelle Devlin, Catchment to Reef Research Group, ACTFR, James Cook University, Michelle.firstname.lastname@example.org; Suzanne Bricker, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment, National Centers for Coastal , Suzanne.email@example.com
Eutrophication has become an increasingly important issue in both our scientific understanding and our ability to define the extent of eutrophication and its possible consequences for managers and stakeholders. This is now recognized as an important global issue and recently there have been a number of initiatives and environmentally legislated directives that have mandated eutrophication assessments for marine waters in an attempt to protect these water bodies from further degradation. The basis of the different assessment methods are varied, however, there are many common indicators, thresholds and formulations for combining indicators. The aim of this session is to document the current status of eutrophication monitoring, assessment and research, as well as the consequences such as economic and human use impacts, on an international basis. The various eutrophication directives currently in place for the assessment of ecological health will be compared in an effort to share methods and information on successful management of this pervasive environmental problem.
Organizers: Stefanie Moorthi, University of Cologne, Institute for Botany, firstname.lastname@example.org; Lars Gamfeldt, Sven Loven Center for Marine Sciences, Dept of Marine Ecology, Goteborg Uni, email@example.com
The ecosystem effects of biodiversity loss have attracted considerable research efforts over the last two decades. Aquatic sciences have contributed greatly to the advancement of our understanding of how biodiversity may influence ecosystem processes and vice versa. Among other things, research in marine and freshwater systems has pointed out the importance of consumers, multitrophic interactions, connectivity, and multiple stressors for the causes and consequences of diversity loss. The field of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is rapidly evolving with studies examining the actual mechanisms underlying the biodiversity-ecosystem function relationship regarding functional diversity, species diversity and genetic diversity within species. Examples of such include the role of environmental heterogeneity, multitrophic interactions, dispersal, multiple functions, and non-random species loss. This session welcomes observational and experimental studies on multiple scales of diversity that investigate new and exiting ways to address the biodiversity-ecosystem function relationship.
The relentless rise of atmospheric CO2 concentrations presents us with one of the greatest challenges of our times. It has been established that fossil-fuel emissions must be drastically reduced to stabilize atmospheric CO2 soon enough to avoid rapid climate change with very serious consequences for humanity. It is also clear that a broad range of strategies for capturing and sequestering CO2 must be pursued. Proposals include ocean fertilization, wave-induced pumping of nutrient-rich deep water closer to the surface, or direct injection of carbon into the deep sea in various forms. Marine algae have also been identified as a potential source of biofuels that does not compete for agricultural resources. Every strategy, including inaction, has potential benefits and risks that should be compared. The purpose of this session is to provide a forum for discussing different climate mitigation proposals in this context.
The purpose of this session is to examine the roles that water on continents (lakes, rivers, ground water) play in the larger scale carbon balance of both their terrestrial watersheds and downstream, receiving, marine systems. Some of the questions to be addressed include: How much terrestrial C is delivered to the sea and in what forms?; What are its short-term and long-term fates?; Should this delivery be thought of as anthropogenically influenced, or not? What are the controls on the fate(s) of terrestrial C inputs to both freshwater and marine systems.
Sediments of lakes and reservoirs act as natural environmental archives. Their analysis allows the reconstruction of biotic and abiotic change in lake catchments as well as in the water column. In the absence of long observational and instrumental time-series the study of sediments allows the assessment of ecosystem variability on time-scales of years to millennia as well as to distinguish between natural (e.g. climate) and human-induced disturbances (e.g. eutrophication, acidification). Moreover, such palaeolimnological studies provide information about the resilience of aquatic ecosystems to such disturbances and the basis for establishing baseline ecosystem conditions as needed for the definition of restorative actions. For this session we invite presentations dealing with palaeolimnological studies using biotic and/or abiotic proxy-records from lake sediments to better understand lacustrine ecosystems with regard to their natural, long-term development as well as their reaction and resilience to external disturbance.