Nutrient enrichment differentially affects body sizes of primary consumers and predators in a detritus-based stream
Limnol. Oceanogr., 55(6), 2010, 2305-2316 | DOI: 10.4319/lo.2010.55.6.2305
ABSTRACT: We assessed how a 5-yr nutrient enrichment affected the responses of different size classes of primary consumers and predators in a detritus-based headwater stream. We hypothesized that alterations in detritus availability because of enrichment would decrease the abundance and biomass of large-bodied consumers. In contrast, we found that 2 yr of enrichment increased the biomass and abundance of all consumers regardless of body size. Furthermore, during the fourth and fifth year of enrichment, the abundance and biomass of largebodied primary consumers continued to increase, while small-bodied primary consumers returned to pretreatment levels. The size structure of a dominant primary consumer (Pycnopsyche spp.) also shifted during the 5-yr enrichment: its average and maximum individual body size increased in the treatment stream compared with the reference stream. Positive enrichment effects also occurred on small-bodied predators, but not on large-bodied predators. Thus, enrichment increased prey body size, but these positive effects on large prey did not propagate up to higher trophic levels to affect large predators. Because consumer body size can be an important species-specific trait determining population dynamics and ecosystem processes, these observed shifts in consumer size distributions suggest a potentially important pathway for global increases in nutrient enrichment to alter stream structure and function.