Large submarine groundwater discharge and benthic eutrophication in Bangdu Bay on volcanic Jeju Island, Korea
Limnol. Oceanogr., 50(5), 2005, 1393-1403 | DOI: 10.4319/lo.2005.50.5.1393
ABSTRACT: We estimated the submarine discharge of groundwater (SGD) and associated nutrients into the semienclosed Bangdu Bay on a volcanic island, Jeju, Korea, by analyzing 222Rn, Ra isotopes (224Ra and 226Ra), and nutrients in seawater, pore water, and coastal groundwater. The submarine inputs of groundwater into Bangdu Bay of 120-180 m3 m-2 yr-1 (on the basis of 222Rn, 224Ra, 226Ra, and Si mass balances) were much higher than those reported from typical continental margins. The nutrient fluxes from SGD were about 90%, 20%, and 80% of the total input (except from open ocean waters) for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP), and dissolved inorganic silicate (DSi), respectively. These excess nutrient inputs from SGD are the major sources of "e;new nutrients"e; in this bay. On the basis of photosynthetic pigments and benthic algal distributions, we suggest that the large fluxes of excess nutrients from SGD can cause benthic eutrophication in a semienclosed bay on this highly permeable volcanic island.